William B. Durch, “Security and Peace Support in Afghanistan: Analysis and Short- to Medium-Term Options,” Rev.5, Henry L. Stimson Center, July 31, 2002, at <http://www.stimson.org/fopo/pubs.cfin?ID=58>.
Barnett Rubin, “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan,” Eurasia.net, 1999, at <http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/afghanistan/links/rubin99.shtml>.
See, e.g., John Keegan, A History of Warfare (London: Hutchison, 1993); Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1999); and John Mackinlay, “Defining Warlords,” in Building Stability in Africa: Challenges for the New Millennium (2000), at <http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No46/Defining.hrml>.
See Stephen R. Mackinnon, “The Peiyang Army, Yan Shin-K’ai and the Origins of Modern Chinese Warlordism,” Journal ofAsian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3 (October 1973).
See Paul B. Rich, “The Emergence and Significance of Warlordism in International Politics,” in Rich, ed., Warlords in International Relations, p. 3.
Owen Lattimore, Pivot ofAsia (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1950), p. 53.
Rich, Warlordism in International Relations, p. 3. See also, Arthur Waldron, “Warlordism versus Federalism: The Revival of Debate?” China Quarterly, Vol. 121 (March 1990): pp. 116–128.
Paul B. Rich, Warlords in International Relations, p. 4.
John Mackinlay, Globalization and Insurgency (New York: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002), p. 94.
Barnett Rubin, Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System, 2nd ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), p. 46.
See M. Nazif Shahrani, “Resisting The Taliban and Talibanism in Afghanistan: Legacies of a Century of Internal Colonialism and Cold War Politics in a Buffer State,” Journal Of International Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 4 (2001), at <http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupa/percept/v-4/shahrani.10.htm>.
Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914–1991 (New York: Vintage Books, 1996), p. 348.
Ralph H. Magnus and Eden Naby, Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx and Mujahid (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002), p. 141.
Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes: A History of the Worlch 1914–1991, p. 350.
Ralph H. Magnus and Eden Naby, Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx and Mujahid, p. 153.
Glen Segell, “Warlordism and Drug Trafficking: From Southeast Asia,” in Rich, ed., Warlords in International Relations, p. 43.
Nancy Lubin, Alex Klatis, and Igor Barsegian, Narcotics Interdiction in Afghanistan and Central Asia: Challenges for International Assistance, Report to the Open Society Institute (New York, 2002), p. 5.
Thomas Withington, ‘Afghanistan: Heroin Trade Dilemma,’ RCA, Vol. 99 (January 18, 2002), at <http://www.iwpr.net/index.pl?archive/rca/rca_200201_99_6_eng.txt>.
Jonathan Steele, “Arms and Warlords,” The Guardian, July 16, 2002.
Sedra, “Challenging the Warlord Culture: Security Sector Reform in Post-Taliban Afghanistan,” p. 18.
Troy S. Thomas and Stephen D. Kiser, “Lords of the Silk Route: Violent Non-State Actors in Central Asia,” INSS Occasional Paper 43 (USAF Academy, CO: USAF Institute for Security Studies, May 2002), p. 80.
Kamoludin Abdullaev and Catherine Barnes, Politics of Compromise: The Tajikistan Peace Process (London: Conciliation Recourses, 2001).
Frederick S. Starr and Marin J. Strmecki, “Afghan Democracy and Its First Missteps,” New York Times, June 14, 2002.