The Case for Women’s Health Research in the United States: Grassroots Efforts, Legislative Change, and Scientific Development



A critical factor in improving the health and health care of all individuals is the development of new scientific knowledge that can be incorporated into clinical and personal practice. Yet, such knowledge referable specifically to women has been in short supply because, historically, women have not been included as full participants in clinical research trials.1 Furthermore, when women have been included in clinical research trials, studies have not traditionally examined whether there were differences between women and men in study outcomes.2 This situation has generated tremendous limits in our understanding of the health of women, and of gender-specific aspects of health and disease.


Gender Perspective Clinical Research Trial General Account Office Public Health Science General Account Office Report 
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© Ilona Kickbusch, Kari A. Hartwig, and Justin M. List 2005

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