Advertisement

Citizenship and Social Change

Chapter
  • 260 Downloads
Part of the French Politics, Society and Culture Series book series (FPSC)

Abstract

How are contemporary French movements to be interpreted or understood? Where should they be situated in relation to current theories and debates? A considerable amount of attention has been devoted to the task of defining what social movements are and describing the role that they assume within political and social life. This question has spawned a truly dizzying array of theories, models, paradigms and approaches, each of which proposes a different understanding or viewpoint on what the social movement is.1 Suffice it to say, there is no agreement as to what constitutes a social movement. Some may recognise sporadic acts of protest as evidence of emerging movements within society, whereas others may refuse to accept all but the most structured and institutionalised entities as genuine examples of movements. Whether a powerful force for change or a weak ephemeral phenomenon, a cultural instrument or a political tool, a subversive and dangerous element or a civic and democratic symbol, the meaning of social movements is as varied and conflictual as the movements themselves: The meaning of contentious collective action has itseif always been open to contention.’2 French sociologists, for their part, have made a rich and pivotal contribution to this body of literature, particularly through the work of prominent intellectuals such as Alain Touraine and more recently, Pierre Bourdieu.3

Keywords

Social Change Social Movement Contemporary Society French Revolution Individual Citizen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    In the vast body of literature on social movements, theorising has proved to be more popular than empirical research. Current theoretical perspectives include new social movement theory, resource mobilisation theory, the cyclical approach and political opportunity structures. For a useful overview of these theoretical approaches, see O. Fillieule and C. Péchu, Lutter ensemble: les théories de Faction collective (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1993)Google Scholar
  2. J. C. Jenkins and B. Klandermans, The Politics of Social Protest (University College of London Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  3. E. Neveu, Sociologie des mouvements sociaux (Paris: La Découverte, 1996)Google Scholar
  4. S. M. Buechler and F. K. Cylke (eds), Social Movements. Perspectives and Issues (California: Mayfield Publishing, 1997)Google Scholar
  5. D. della Porta and M. Diani, Social Movements: an introduction (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999).Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    L. Bell, ‘Interpreting Collective Action: Methodology and Ideology in the Analysis of Social Movements in France’, Modern & Contemporary France, 9(2), (2001), p. 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.
    See A. Touraine, The Voice and the Eye (Cambridge University Press, 1981); and The Return of the Actor: Social Theory in Postindustrial Society (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988); and also Pourrons-nous vivre ensemble? Egaux et différents (Paris: Fayard, 1997).Google Scholar
  8. This book has been translated into English: A. Touraine, Can We Live Together? Equal and Different (Cambridge: Polity, 2000).Google Scholar
  9. See also P. Bourdieu, In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990); Contre-feux. Propos pour serx’ir à la résistance contre l’invasion néo-libérale (Paris: Liber-Raisons d’Agir, 1998); and ‘Les objectifs d’un mouvement social européen’, Le Passant Ordinaire, no. 33 (Feb.-March 2001), pp. 24–5. A recently formed research grouping within the Institute of Political Science in Paris, GERMM (Group for the Study and Research of Transformations in Activism) brings together leading French specialists on social movements and alternative politics, including Nonna Mayer, Olivier Fillieule, Sophie Duchesne. Since 1994, this group has focused on an analysis of new social movements within contemporary French society. Researchers from GERMM contributed to the publication of a special issue of the Revue Française de Science Politique, vol. 51, no. 1–2, (Feb.-April 2001) with articles on the Human Rights League, Médecins sans Frontières, DAL (Droit au Logement), the ecologists and SOS Racisme. Google Scholar
  10. 4.
    Within American literature, resource mobilisation theory remains the dominant paradigm for analysing social movements and collective action. Whereas European commentators have focused on the importance of structural and ideological changes in determining new movements within advanced industrial societies, American observers have paid more attention to the motivations of participants and the ‘rationality’ of social protest. See D. Rucht (ed.), Research on Social Movements; the State of the Art in Western Europe and the USA (Westview Press, 1991) for a useful comparison of the European and American approaches.Google Scholar
  11. 5.
    Key new social movement theorists are: the German analyst, J. Habermas, Legitimation Crisis, (Heinemann, 1976); the Italian sociologist A. Melucci, 1989, op. cit. (chapter 1, note 18); and 1996, op. cit. (chapter 1, note 1). In France, the main social movement theorist is Alain Touraine who contributed to defining the concept ‘new social movement’. See A. Touraine, 1981, op. cit. and 1988, op. cit. (note 3).Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    See R. Inglehart, The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles among Western Publics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), and Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  13. R.J. Dalton, Citizen Politics, 2nd edn (New Jersey: Chatham, 1996).Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    A. Maslow, Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    D. Bell, The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973).Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    K. Eder, The New Politics of Class: Social Movements and Cultural Dynamics in Advanced Societies (London: Sage, 1993).Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    Cited by J. Guifhaumou, La Parole des sans. Les mouvements actuels à l’épreuve de la Révolution française (Paris: ENS Edition, 1998), p. 31.Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    B. Turner, Citizenship and Capitalism. The Debate Over Reformism (London: Allen & Unwin, 1986).Google Scholar
  19. 27.
    E. F. Isin and P. K. Wood, Citizenship and Identity (London: Sage, 1999).Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    See A. Favell, Philosophies of Integration. Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain (Basingstoke: Macmillan — now Palgrave Macmillan, 1998).Google Scholar
  21. 35.
    See S. Bouamama, A. Cordeiro and M. Roux (eds), La Citoyenneté dans tous ses états. De l’immigration à la nouvelle citoyenneté (Paris: CIEMI et L’Harmattan, 1992)Google Scholar
  22. E. Balibar, Droit de cité. Culture et politique en démocratie (Paris: Editions de l’Aube, 1998).Google Scholar
  23. See also the following two short articles: C. Wihtol de Wenden, ‘La Nouvelle citoyenneté’, Hommes et Migrations, no. 1196 (March 1996), 14–16; and A. Cordeiro ‘Pratiques associatives, pratiques citoyennes’, Hommes et Migrations, 1196 (March 1996), 17–21.Google Scholar
  24. 37.
    See B. Turner (ed.), Citizenship and Social Theory (London: Sage, 1993)Google Scholar
  25. C. Wihtol de Wenden, La Citoyenneté européenne (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1997)Google Scholar
  26. J. Habermas, ‘The European nation-state and the pressures of globalization’, New Left Review, 235 (1999), 46–59Google Scholar
  27. G. Delanty, Citizenship in a Global Age (Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  28. 43.
    W. R. Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (London and Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 46.Google Scholar
  29. 44.
    C. Mouffe (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. Pluralism, Citizenship, Community (London and New York: Verso, 1992), p. 4.Google Scholar
  30. 49.
    C. Mouffe, Le Politique et ses enjeux. Pour une démocratie plurielle (Paris: La Découverte/MAUSS, 1994), p. 153. p. 74. p. 24.Google Scholar
  31. 69.
    A. Oldfieid, Citizenship and Community, Civic Republicanism and the Modern World (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 2.Google Scholar
  32. 73.
    C. Mouffe, ‘Radical Democracy or Liberal Democracy?’ in D. Trend, Radical Democracy. Identity Citizenship and the State (London: Routledge, 1996), p. 25.Google Scholar
  33. 78.
    P. Close, Citizenship, Europe and Change (Basingstoke: Macmillan — now Palgrave Macmillan, 1995), p. 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sarah Waters 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of FrenchUniversity of LeedsUK

Personalised recommendations