The struggle to eliminate apartheid encompassed many facets of social, economic, and political reform, including demands to outlaw explicit social discrimination, institute equal political rights and propagate peace in the region. Most of the chapters in this volume demonstrate that international pressures contributed to these goals. Sanctioners strengthened the anti-apartheid movement, and added political and economic incentives for the ruling National Party (NP) to repeal apartheid laws and enter into negotiations with the extra-parliamentary opposition. Numerous strategic, economic, and social sanctions also weakened the regime’s ability to maintain apartheid, even undermining its ideological foundations. Yet some of the chapters also show that sanctions produced counterproductive effects. The militarization of government and society increased; import-substitution industrialization developed; an isolationist spirit crystallized among the white electorate.
- International Pressure
- Political Reform
- African National Congress
- National Party
- Economic Sanction
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Also see G. Cawthra, Securing South Africa’s Democracy: Defence, Development and Security in Transition (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1997).
D. R. Black, “The Long and Winding Road: International Norms and Domestic Political Change in South Africa,” in T. Risse, S. C. Ropp, and K. Sikkink, eds., The Power of Principles: International Human Rights Norms and Domestic Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
For example, D. Cortright, and G. A. Lopez, Economic Sanctions: Panacea or Peacebuilding in a Post-Cold War World (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995);
J. Stremlau, Sharpening International Sanctions: Toward a Stronger Role for the United Nations, Report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict (New York: Carnegie Foundation, November 1996).
F. Halliday, “The Gulf War 1990–1991 and the Study of International Relations,” Review of International Studies 20 (1994), pp. 109–30.
D. R. Black, “Echoes of Apartheid? Canada, Nigeria, and the Politics of Norms,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, March 1997.
See A. Klotz, “Race and Nationalism in Zimbabwean Foreign Policy,” Round Table 327 (1993), pp. 260–5;
A. Klotz, “Norms and Sanctions: Lessons from the Socialization of South Africa,” Review of International Studies 22 (1996), p. 189.
Editors and Affiliations
© 1999 Audie Klotz
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Klotz, A. (1999). Making Sanctions Work: Comparative Lessons. In: Crawford, N.C., Klotz, A. (eds) How Sanctions Work. International Political Economy Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781403915917_14
Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, London
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