From Customs Union to People’s Europe?

  • Frank Gardner


During the latter half of the twentieth century, a dollar-dominated world, within which the United States of America (USA) sought to create a liberal economic order managed by international institutions, replaced the economic nationalism, trade wars and competitive exchange depreciation that characterised the Europe of the 1930s. It was US leadership within a Cold War context that set European elites on their path to integration – accepting the risk that a regional bloc might not fit easily into an open global system. The unease and ambivalence voiced by the British weighed less with US policy-makers than the need to fortify, unify and strengthen Europe against the Soviet Union. In establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), the politicians of the centre parties within Europe created what was in Kapteyn’s (1996) words ‘ a market without a state’. It is this use of economic means to political and social ends that will be explored in this chapter.


Common Agricultural Policy Custom Union European Economic Community North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Total Allowable Catch 
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© Frank Gardner 2002

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  • Frank Gardner

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