Acemoglu, D. and J. Robinson. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Acemoglu, D. and J. Robinson. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Business.
Ades, A. and R. Di Tella. 1999. “Rents, Competition, and Corruption.” American Economic Review 89(4): 982–993.
Adserà, A., C. Boix and M. Payne. 2003. “Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Quality of Government.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 19(2): 445–490.
Andrews, J. T. and G. R. Montinola. 2004. “Veto Players and the Rule of Law in Emerging Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 37(1): 55–87.
Andrews, M. 2008. “The Good Governance Agenda: Beyond Indicators without Theory.” Oxford Development Studies 36(4): 379–407.
Bäck, H. and A. Hadenius. 2008. “Democracy and State Capacity: Exploring a J-Shaped Relationship.” Governance 21(1): 1–24.
Banfeld, E. C. 1975. “Corruption as a Feature of Governmental Organization.” Journal of Law and Economics 18(3): 587–605.
Becker, G. S. 1974. “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach.” Pp. 1–54 in Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, edited by G. S. Becker and W. M. Landes. New York: University of Columbia Press.
Becker, G. S. and G. J. Stigler. 1974. “Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers.” Journal of Legal Studies 3(1): 1–18.
Besley, T. 2006. Principled Agents: The Political Economy of Good Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dahlström, C. and V. Lapuente. 2010. “Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Performance-Related Pay in the Public Sector.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 20(3): 577–600.
Dahlström, C., V. Lapuente and J. Teorell. 2012. “The Merit of Meritocratization: Politics, Bureaucracy, and the Institutional Deterrents of Corruption.” Political Research Quarterly 65(3): 656–668.
Diamond, L. J. 1990. “Three Paradoxes of Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 1:48–60.
Diamond, L. J. 1997. Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dollar, D., R. Fisman and R. Gatti. 2001. “Are Women Really the ‘Fairer’ Sex? Corruption and Women in Government.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 46(4): 423–429.
Doornbos, M. 2001. “‘Good Governance’: The Rise and Decline of a Policy Metaphor?” Journal of Development Studies 37(6): 93–108.
Easterly, W. and R. Levine. 1997. “Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4): 1203–1250.
Englebert, P. 2000. “Solving the Mystery of the AFRICA Dummy.” World Development 28(10): 1821–1835.
Englebert, P. 2002. State Legitimacy and Development in Africa. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Evans, P. B. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Gerring, J. and S. C. Thacker. 2004. “Political Institutions and Corruption: The Role of Unitarism and Parliamentarism.” British Journal of Political Science 34(2): 295–330.
Global Integrity. 2008. “Global Integrity Report.” Washington, DC: Global Integrity.
Goldsmith, A. A. 2001. “Risk, Rule and Reason: Leadership in Africa.” Public Administration and Development 21(2): 77–87.
Holmberg, S., B. Rothstein and N. Nasiritousi. 2009. “Quality of Government: What You Get.” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 135–161.
Holsti, K. J. 1996. The State, War, and the State of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horowitz, D. L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Keefer, P. 1997. “Clientelism, Credibility, and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 51(4): 804–821.
Klitgaard, R. 1988. Controlling Corruption. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kohli, A. 2004. State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kpundeh, S. J. 1998. “Political Will in Fighting Corruption.” Pp. 91–110 in Corruption and Integrity Improvement Initiatives in Developing Countries, edited by S. J. Kpundeh and I. Hors. Paris: UNDP/OECD.
Kpundeh, S. J. 2004. Building State Capacity in Africa. Washington. DC: World Bank Publications.
Kunicova, J. and S. Rose-Ackerman. 2005. “Electoral Rules and Constitutional Structure as Constraints on Corruption.” British Journal of Political Science 35(4): 573–606.
La Porta, R., F. Lopez-de-Silanes, A. Shleifer and R. Vishny. 1999. “The Quality of Government.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 15(1): 222–279.
La Porta, R., F. Lopez-de-Silanes, A. Shleifer and R. Vishny. 2008. “The Economic Consequences of Legal Origins.” Journal of Economic Literature 46(2): 285–332.
Lawson, L. 2009. “The Politics of Anti-Corruption Reform in Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 47(1): 73–100
Lemay-Hébert, N. 2009. “State-Building without Nation-Building? Legitimacy, State Failure and the Limits of the Institutionalist Approach.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 3(1): 21–45.
Levi, M. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Lipset, S. M. 1960. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Garden City: Anchor Books.
McGowan, P. 2003. “African Military Coups D’état, 1956–2001: Frequency, Trends and Distribution.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41(3): 339–370.
Mesquita, B., A. Smith, R. M. Siverson and J. D. Morrow. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Migdal, J. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Migdal, J. 2001. State in Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, G. 2000. “Above Politics: Credible Commitment and Efficiency in the Design of Public Agencies.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 10(2): 289–328.
Mo Ibrahim Foundation. 2014. Ibrahim Index of African Governance. London, UK: Mo Ibrahim Foundation.
Montinola, G. R. and R. W. Jackman. 2002. “Sources of Corruption: A CrossCountry Study.” British Journal of Political Science 32(1): 147–170.
Mookherjee, D. and I. P. L. Png. 1995. “Corruptible Law Enforcers: How Should they Be Compensated?” The Economic Journal 105: 145–159.
Myerson, R. B. 1993. “Effectiveness of Electoral Systems for Reducing Government Corruption—A Game-Theoretic Analysis.” Games and Economic Behavior 5(1): 118–132.
North, D. C., J. J. Wallis and B. Weingast. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Persson, A. and M. Sjöstedt. 2012. “Responsive and Responsible Leaders: A Matter of Political Will.” Perspectives on Politics 10(3): 617–632.
Persson, A., B. Rothstein and J. Teorell. 2013. “Why Anticorruption Reforms Fail—Systemic Corruption as a Collective Action Problem.” Governance 26(3): 449–471.
Persson, T. and G. Tabellini. 2003. The Economic Effects of Constitutions. Munich Lectures in Economics. London: The MIT Press.
Persson, T., G. Roland, and G. Tabellini. 2000. “Comparative Politics and Public Finance.” Journal of Political Economy 108(6): 1121–1161.
Persson, T., G. Tabellini, and F. Trebbi. 2003. “Electoral Rules and Corruption.” Journal of the European Economic Association 1(4): 958–989.
Pritchett, L. and M. Woolcock. 2004. “Solutions When the Solution Is the Problem: Arraying the Disarray in Development.” World Development 32(2): 191–212.
Rauch, J. and P. Evans. 2000. “Bureaucratic Structure and Bureaucratic Performance in Less Developed Countries.” Journal of Public Economics 75(1): 49–71.
Roeder, P. G. 2001. “Ethnolinguistic fractionalization (ELF) indices, 1961” at http//:weber.ucs-d.edu\~proeder\elf.htm, accessed on 5 December 2014.
Rose-Ackerman, S. 1978. Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. New York: Academic Press.
Rothstein, B. 2011. The Quality of Government: Corruption, Social Trust and Inequality in International Perspective. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Shleifer, A. and R. W. Vishny. 1998. The Grabbing Hand: Government Pathologies and Their Cures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sung, H. E. 2004. “Democracy and Political Corruption: A Cross-National Comparison.” Crime, Law, and Social Change 41(2): 179–193.
Tanzi, V. 2000. Policies, Institutions and the Dark Side of Economics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Transparency International. 2000. TI Sourcebook. Confronting Corruption: The Elements of a National Integrity System. Berlin: Transparency International.
Transparency International. 2014. Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Berlin: Transparency International.
Treisman, D. 2000. “The Causes of Corruption: A Cross-National Study.” Journal of Public Economics 76(3): 399–457.
Tsebelis, G. 1995. “Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism.” British Journal of Political Science 25(3): 289–325.
UCDP/PRIO. 2009. Armed Conflict Dataset v4–2009. Uppsala University: Department of Peace and Conflict Research & Oslo: Centre for the Study of Civil War at the International Peace Research Institute.
United Nations (UN). 2004. Anti-Corruption Toolkit. New York: UN. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). 2004. Anti-Corruption Practice Note. New York: UNDP.
van de Walle, N. 2003. African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis1979– 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van Rijckeghem, C. and B. Weder. 2001. “Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption, and by How Much?” Journal of Development Economics 65(2): 307–331.
Wängnerud, L. 2009. “Women in Parliaments. Descriptive and Substantive Representation.” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 51–69.
Werner, S. B. 1983. “New Directions in the Study of Administrative Corruption.” Public Administration Review 43(2): 146–154.
World Bank. 2000. Anti-Corruption in Transition. A Contribution to the Policy Debate. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank. 2014. African Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Wrong, M. 2009. It’s Our Turn to Eat: A Story of a Kenyan Whistle Blower. London: Fourth Estate.