Islam and the Idea of the “African University”: An Analytical Framework

  • Mbaye Lo


The mission of a university is to create a space where knowledge is unearthed, produced, disseminated, and stored for the benefit of mankind (Barzum 1969; Cole, 2009; Kiss and Euben 2009). This task encompasses the creation of knowledge and its transmission to innovation and discovery for the improvement ofpeople’s standard of living. The idea of the “African University” is an abstraction of this task within the African context. It is a discussion of how to generate knowledge that is primarily utilized for the purpose ofpresenting or interpreting information regarding the African peoples. Disseminating knowledge about Africa to Africans and others is no less important than producing the knowledge itself. These two challenges of producing and disseminating knowledge are the key themes of the ideas surrounding the “African University.” The following discussion will survey Africa’s cultural heritages in order to reveal some existing lacunae, loopholes, and unfilled charts in the folds of Africa’s knowledge map, which should be considered in any educational reform.


Knowledge Production Educational Reform Muslim Community Colonial Legacy Muslim Identity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AAU. (2013). Association of African Universities Full List of Members. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from
  2. Abdoulaye, G. (2003). Les Diplômés Béninois des Universities Arabo-islamiques: Une élite Moderne ‘déclassée’ en quête de légitimité Socio-religieuse et Politique. Mainz: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität. Department of Anthropology and African Studies. Working Papers Number 18. Downloaded on August 23, 2013.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmat (Second Name Missing Former Director of FUIW at ICESCO). (2014). Interviewed in Rabat, Morocco on June 12, 2014Google Scholar
  4. Ajayi, J., Goma, L., and Johnson, G. (1996). The African Experience with Higher Education. London: James Curry.Google Scholar
  5. Al Faruqi, I. R. (1982). Islamization of Knowledge: General Principles and Work-plan. Maryland: International Institute of Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  6. Arowosegbe, J. (2008). The Social Sciences and Knowledge Production in Africa: The Contribution of Claude Ake. Africa Spectrum, 43, 333–351.Google Scholar
  7. Asad, T. (2003). Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity, and Cultural Memory in the Present. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Assie-Lumumba, N. T. (2006). Higher Education in Africa: Crises, Reforms and Transfor-mation Dakar: Codesria Working Papers Series.Google Scholar
  9. Austen, R. and Jansen, J. (1996). History, Oral Transmission and Structure in Ibn Khaldun’s Chronology of Mali Rulers. HistoryinAfrica, 23, 17–23.Google Scholar
  10. Banya, K. and Elu, J. (2001). The World Bank and Financing Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Higher Education, 42(1), 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barzum, J. (1969). TheAmericanUniversity:How It Runs,Wherelt Is Going. Oxford: Oxford University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  12. (2007). “Education Spending to Reach Åí74bn.” 21 March 2007.Google Scholar
  13. BBC News. Retrieved from
  14. “Malawi Issues Food Crisis Appeal.” October 15, 2005. Africa News Front Page. BBC News. Retrieved from
  15. Brenner, L. (1985). Reflexions sur le Savoir Islamique en Afrique de l’Ouest. Bordeaux: Université de Bordeaux. (Centre d’étude d’Afrique Noire).Google Scholar
  16. Brenner, L. (1993). Muslim ldentity and Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bloomingdale: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brenner, L. (2001). Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society. Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brodhead, R. (February 2010). Comingthrough the Current Challenges. Talk presented at the Annual Meeting of the University Faculty. Durham, NC: Duke University.Google Scholar
  19. Cobban, A. B. (1971). The Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization. London: Methuen & Co.Google Scholar
  20. Cole, J. (2009). The Great American University: lts Rise to Preeminence, lts lndispensable National Role, Why It Must Be Protected. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  21. Conerly, C. (2008). Marginal Muslims: Politics and the Perception Bounds of Islamic Authenticity in Northern Nigeria. Africa Today, 54(3), 67–92.Google Scholar
  22. Constantin, F. (1993). Leadership, Muslim Identities and East African Politics: Tradition, Bureaucratization and Communication. In L. Brenner (Ed.) Muslim ldentity and Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 36–58.Google Scholar
  23. Crile, G. (2003). Charlie Wilsons War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.Google Scholar
  24. Crossman, P. (2002). Teaching Endogenous Knowledge in South Africa: Issues, Approaches and Aids: Working Papers from the Teaching Endogenous Knowledge in South Africa Project. Pretoria: Centre for Indigenous Knowledge, Department of Anthropology, University of Pretoria.Google Scholar
  25. Diagne, S. B. (2008). Toward an Intellecutal History of West Africa: The Meaning of Timbaktu. In S. Jeppie and S. B. Diagne (Eds.) The Meanings of Timbaktu. Dakar: Codesria, pp. 19–27.Google Scholar
  26. Diop, C. (1973). Nations Nègres et Culture: de l’Antiquité Nègre-égyptienne aux Problèmes Culturels de l’Afrique Noire d Aujourdhui. Paris: Présence Africaine.Google Scholar
  27. Dréze, J. and Debelle, J. (1968). Conceptions de l’Université. Paris: Éditions Universitaires.Google Scholar
  28. Dumont, R. (1966). False Start in Africa. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  29. Education Spending to Reach £74bn. (March 21, 2007). BBC News. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from
  30. Elfasi, M. and Hrbek, I. (1998). (Eds.) General History of Africa, Vol. 3, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century: Five Formative Centuries. Paris: NESCO, pp. 367–435.Google Scholar
  31. El Zein, S. I. (1992). Islam, Christian Missions and the Colonial Administration in East Africa: A Documental Study with Special Emphasis on Uganda. Muscat: Sultan Qaboos University.Google Scholar
  32. Fall, M. (1993). Les arabisants au Sénégal: contre-élite ou courtiers? In Le Radicalisme Islamique au Sud du Sahara: Da’wa, Arabisation et Critique de l Occident. R. Otayek (Ed.) Paris: Karthala, pp. 197–212.Google Scholar
  33. Fanon, F. (1967). Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fanon, F. and Sartre, J. (1968). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Farias, P. F. (2008). Intellectual Innovation and Reinvention of the Sahel: The Seventeenth-Century Timbaktu Chronicles. In S. Jeppie and S. B. Diagne (Eds.) The Meanings of Timbaktu. Dakar: CODESRIA, pp. 95–107Google Scholar
  36. Felice, C. (1965). The Education of African Muslims in Uganda. Uganda Journal, Part2, 193–199.Google Scholar
  37. Forbath, P. (1977). The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration and Exploitation of the World’ s Most Dramatic Rivers. New York: Harper & Row, p. 278.Google Scholar
  38. Organization Internationale de la Francophonie. (2007). La Francophonie dans le Monde 2006–2007. Paris: OIF.Google Scholar
  39. FUIW. (2007). 4th General Conference Session: University of Kuwait: State of Kowait-5-7 April 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from
  40. Gandolfi, S. (2003). L’enseignement Islamique en Afrique noire. Cahiers d’études, XLIII(1-2), 169–170, 261–277.Google Scholar
  41. Goma-Thethet, J. E. (2012). La Paix Et La Securite En Afrique Central, Depuis La Derniere Decennie Du XXeme Siècle: Etat Des Lieux Et Perspectives. In L’Afrique Possible: 50 ans d Independence de Development en Afrique. Rabat: University Muhammed V-Souissi: Institute des Etudes Africaines, pp. 85–97.Google Scholar
  42. Gyagenda, I. and Rajab-Gyagenda, W. (2013). The Pioneers: Islamic Universityin Uganda (IUIU) Is Born 1987/1988. Submitted to the Conference on Islamic Institutions of Higher Learning in Africa: Their History, Mission and Role in Regional Development, Duke University, Durham, NC. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  43. Haron, M. (1996). The Study of Islam in South Africa. In J. Platvoet, J. Cox and J. K. Olupona (Eds.) The Study of Religions in Africa: Past, Present and Prospects. Cambridge: Roots and Branches, pp. 268–292.Google Scholar
  44. Haron, M. (2012). Southern Africa’s Muslim Communities and (African) Scholarship. BOLESWA: Journal of Theology, Religion and Philosophy, 4(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  45. Hassan, H. A. (2012). Al Azhar University and Post-Revolutionary Egypt: What Prospects for Africa. Paper Presented at African Studies Association of North America’s 55th Annual Meeting. Philadelphia: Unpublished.Google Scholar
  46. Hassane, M. (2008). Ajami in Africa: The Use of Arabic Script in the Transcription of African Languages. In S. Jeppie and S. B. Diagne (Eds.) The Meanings of Timbaktu. Dakar: Codesria, pp. 109–122.Google Scholar
  47. Hefner, R. W. and Zaman, M. Q. (2007). Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hieronymus, A. (2011). Muslim Identity Formations and Learning Environment. In A. Tayob, I. Niehaus, and W. Weisse (Eds.) Muslim ldentity Formations and Learning Envrionment. Munster: Humburg University, Waxmann, pp. 137–162.Google Scholar
  49. Hirsch, A. Qur’anic Schools in Senegal Are Abusing Pupils, Says Rights Group. April 15, 2010. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  50. Hiskett, M. (October, 1960). Problems of Religious Education in Muslim Communities in Africa. Overseas Education, 32(3), 117–126.Google Scholar
  51. Hochschild, A. (1998). King Leopold s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York: Mariner Books.Google Scholar
  52. Hopkins, J and Levtzion, N. (2000). Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, 333–336. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hunwick, J. (1997). Towards a History of the Islamic Intellectual Tradition in West Africa Down to the Nineteenth Century. Journal of Islamic Studies, 17, 4–27.Google Scholar
  54. Hunwick, J. (2006). West Africa, lslam and the Arab World: Studies in Honor of Basil Davidson. Princeton, New Jersey: Markus Wiener Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Hunwick, J. O. (1995). Arabic Literature of Africa. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  56. Ibn Khaldun, Abdurrahman. (2008). Muqaddimatu lbn Khaldoun. Cairo: Muassasatu Al Mukhtar.Google Scholar
  57. Ingram, B. (2011). Deobandis Abroad: Sufism, Ethics and Polemicsin in a Global Islamic Movement. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  58. Interim Report on the Sixth International Islamic Education Conference: First International Workshop. Cape Town: Islamia College, 1997.Google Scholar
  59. International University of Africa. (2011). Al-Mutamar al’alami Hawl ‘Ahd al Baqt [International Convention on the House of the Prophet]. Khartoum: IUA Press.Google Scholar
  60. Jeppie, S. and Diagne, S. (2008). The Meanings of Timbuktu. Dakar & Cape Town: CODESRIA/HSRC.Google Scholar
  61. Jowitt, David. (1991). Nigerian English Usage: An lntroduction. Lagos: Longman Nigeria.Google Scholar
  62. Ka, T. (1982). L’enseignement Arab Au Senegal. L’Ecole de Pir-Saniokhor: Son Histoire et son Role dans la Culture Arabo-lslamique au Senegal du XVlle au XIXe Siecles. Paris: University de Paris IV.Google Scholar
  63. Kaag, M. (2007). Aid, Umma and Politics: Transnational Islamic NGOs in Chad. In R. Otayek (Ed.) Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 85–102.Google Scholar
  64. Kamarah, M. (2010). Zuhuru al-Basatin fi Tarikh al-Sudan [Flowers of Gardens in the History Black Peoples.] Kuwait: Muassasatu al-Babtin.Google Scholar
  65. Kane, C. (1975). Ambiguous Adventure. Katherine Woods (Trans.) United Kingdom: Oxford.Google Scholar
  66. Kane, O. (2002). Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Northern Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  67. Kane, O. (2012). Islamic Institutions of Higher Learning in Africa: Their History, Mission and Role in Regional Development. Paper Presented at African Studies Association of North America s 55th Annual Meeting. Philadelphia: Unpublished.Google Scholar
  68. Kasozi, A. B. (1986). The Spread of Islam in Uganda. Nairobi: Oxford University Press in association with the Islamic African Centre, Khartoum.Google Scholar
  69. Kasule, O. H. (2013). The Muslim University: Rationale, Vision, and Challenges. In S. Kawai, A. G. Habib, and I. Bala (Eds.) Islamic Universities: Prospects and Challenges. Kano: IIIT (Nigeria Office), pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  70. Keller, E. (1995). Decolonization, Independence and the Failure of Politics. In P. M. Martin and P. O’Meara (Eds.) Africa. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, pp. 136–156.Google Scholar
  71. Kerr, C. (1995). The Uses of the University. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Khalil, I. (1995). Islamisation of Knowledge: A Methodology. Occasional Paper 2. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  73. King, N. and Kasozi, A. (1973). Islam and the Confluence of Religion in Uganda 1840—1966. Tallahassee: American Academy of Religion.Google Scholar
  74. Kipling, Rudyard’s poem in this subject. (1865–1936). “The White Man’s Burden.” February 1899. Poem originally published in McClure’s Magazine 12.Google Scholar
  75. Kiss, E. and Euben, J. (Eds.) (2009). Debating Moral Education: Rethinking the Role of the Modern University. North Carolina: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Laye, C. (2005). L Enfant Noir. USA: Myrna Rochester, and Natalie Gillingham Schorr.Google Scholar
  77. Leblanc, M. N. (1999). The Production of Islamic Identities through Knowledge Claims in Bouake, Cote D’Ivoir. Affrican Affairs, 98(393), 485–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. LifeSiteNews. (1999). UN NF Pressure Lead to Family Values Reversal in Kenya. In, accessed on December 7, 1999.Google Scholar
  79. Lindow, M. (2007). Islamic Universities Spread through Africa. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(44), A33.Google Scholar
  80. Lo, M. (2001). Qadaya Al-Luqa Wa Al-Din. Khartoum: International University of Africa University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Lo, M. (2011). Reforming Higher Education in Africa: The Case of IUA. Khartoum: International University of Africa.Google Scholar
  82. Lo, M. (2012). Assessing Islamic Universities in Africa: The Case of International University of Africa. Paper Presented at African Studies Association of North America s 55th Annual Meeting. Philadelphia: Unpublished.Google Scholar
  83. Lo, M. (2009). Understanding Muslim Discourse: Language, Tradition and the Message of Bin Laden. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  84. Lo, M. (2013). Islamic Institutions of Higher Learning in Africa: A Case of Collaboration or Cooptation between Africa and the Middle East? Presented at Exploring Middle East Involvement in Africa International Conference. Pretoria: Afro-Middle East Centre (AMEC), South Africa, November 5–6.Google Scholar
  85. Lobban, R. (2006). Relations between Islamic Egypt and Christian Nubia: The Case of the Baqt. In Sudan Studies Association Newsletter, 24, 11–19. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  86. Lor, J. and Britz, J. (2005). Knowledge Production from an African Perspective. International Information and LibraryReview, 37(2), 61–76.Google Scholar
  87. Luthuli, A. J. (1962). Let My People Go. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  88. MacQueen, N. (2007). Colonialism. Harlow, England: Longman.Google Scholar
  89. Makdisi, G. (1981). The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Mamdani, M. (1996). Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Mamdani, M. (2005). Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War and the War on Terror. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  92. Mandela, N. (1995). LongWalk to Freedom. Randburg, South Africa: Macdonald Purnell.Google Scholar
  93. Marry, M. (2007). Culture, Identity and Islamic Schooling. A Philosophical Approach. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  94. Mazrui, A. (1986). The Africans: A Triple Heritage. New York: Little Brown and Co., and London: BBC.Google Scholar
  95. Mazrui, A. (2004). Toward Re-Africanizing African Universities: Who Killed Intellectualism in the Post Colonial Era? Dirasat Ifriqiyya, 32, 7–37. Khartoum: International University of Africa.Google Scholar
  96. Medubi, O. (2003). Language and Ideology in Nigerian Cartoons. In R. Dirven, R. Frank, and M. Putz (Eds.) Cognitive Models in Language and Thought: Ideology, Metaphors and Meanings. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 159–197.Google Scholar
  97. Mill, J. S. (1862). Considerations on the Representative Government. NewYork: Harper& Brothers, Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ngom, F. (2009). Amadu Bamba’s Pedagogy and the Development of Ajam Literature. African Studies Review, 52(1), 99–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Niane, T. D. (1965). Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. Paris: Longmans.Google Scholar
  100. Njozi, H. M. (2013). The Mission of the Muslim Universityof Morogoro: Tensions, Promises and Challenges. Submitted to the Conference on Islamic Institutions of Higher Learning in Africa: Their History, Mission and Role in Regional Development. Duke University, Durham: Unpublished.Google Scholar
  101. Nyagotti-Chacha, C. (2004). Public University, Private Funding: The Challenges in East Africa. In P. Zeleza and A. Olukoshi (Eds.) African Universities in the Twenty-First Century. Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, Vol. I, pp. 94–107.Google Scholar
  102. p’Bitek, O. (1997). Indigenous Ills. Transition, No. 75/76 (The Anniversary Issue: Selections from Transition, 1961–1976), 40–42. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from
  103. Proudfoot, L. and Wilson, H. S. (1960). Muslim Attitudes to Education in Sierra Leone. The Muslim World, 50(2), 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Read, M. H. (1955). Education in Africa: Its Pattern and Role in Social Change. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 298(1), 170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Reetz, D. (2007). The Deoband Universe: What Makes a Transcultural and Transnational Education Movement of Islam? Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 27(1), 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reichmuth, S. (1993). Islamic Learning and Its Interaction with Western Education in Llorin, Nigeria. In L. Brenner (Ed.) Muslim Identity and Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bloomingdale: Indiana University Press, pp. 179–197.Google Scholar
  107. Reichmuth, S. (1997). A Regional Center of Islamic Learning in Nigeria: Llorin and Its Influence on Yoruba Islam. In N. Grandin and M. Gaborieau (Eds.) Madrasa: La Transmission du Savoir Dans Le Monde Musulman. Paris: AP Editions Arguments, pp. 229–245.Google Scholar
  108. Robinson, D. W. (1963). The Church in Tanganyika. African Ecclasiastical Review, 5(3), 256–264.Google Scholar
  109. Rodney, W. (1972). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa? Great Britain: Bogle-L’Ouverture Publications, London and Tanzanian Publishing House, Dar es Salaam.Google Scholar
  110. Rodney, W. (2012). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Cape Town: Pambazuka Press.Google Scholar
  111. Roy, O. (2004). Globalized lslam: The Search for a New Ummah. NewYork: olumbia University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Salih, T. (1991). Season of Migration to the North. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  113. Sall, M. Y. (2009). Al-Azhar d’Egypte, l’autre institution d’enseignement des Sénégalais. Indicateurs statistiques, Contributions explicatives et base de données. El lttihaad.Google Scholar
  114. Sambo, A. (2005). Report of the Two-Day ASUU-CODESRIA Initiative on Reforming Higher Education System. The National Scholar, 6(5), 15–25.Google Scholar
  115. Sanderson, L. (1963). Educational Development and Administrative Control in the Nuba Mountains Region of the Sudan. The Journal of African History, 4, 233–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Satti, M. (2006). al-lslam wa Tadakhul al-Thaqafaat Fi Senegal.[lslam and the Interconnectedness of Cultures in Senegal.] Khartoum: International University.Google Scholar
  117. Saint, W. S. (1992). Universities in Africa: Strategies for Stabilization and Revitalization. Technical Paper No. 194. Technical Department at the World Bank, Africa Region. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved January 23, 2012, from
  118. Sayed, K. M. (2011). South African Madrassa Move into the 21st Century. In A. Tayod, I. Niehaus, and W. Weisse (Eds.) Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Munster: Humburg University, Waxmann, pp. 63–84.Google Scholar
  119. Scott-Baumann, A. (2011). Developing Higher Education for Secular University Sector:Orientalism in Reverse? In A. Tayod, I. Niehaus, and W. Weisse (Eds.) Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Munster: Humburg University, Waxmann, pp. 173–194.Google Scholar
  120. Sha’rawi, H., “Forward” to the Arabic version of Epic of Sonjata. (2010). Egypt National Center for Translation. Cairo, p. 16.Google Scholar
  121. Simons, T. W. (2003). lslam in a GlobalizingWorld. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Sirajudeen, A. (2013). Islamic Oriented Universities in Nigeria: Triumphs & Travails. Sub-mitted to the Conference on Islamic Institutions of Higher Learning in Africa: Their History, Mission and Role in Regional Development, Duke University, Durham, NC, Unpublished.Google Scholar
  123. Smith, A. (1759). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. London: A. Millar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Talbani, A. (1996). Pedagogy, Power and Discourse: Transformation of Islamic Education. Comparative Education Review, 40(1), 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tayob, A. (2011). Islamization for South African Muslim Independent Schools. In A. Tayob, I. Niehaus, and W. Weisse (Eds.) Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Munster: Humburg University, Waxmann, pp. 39–54.Google Scholar
  126. Tayob, A., Niehaus, I., and Weisse, W. (2011). Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Munster: Humburg University, Waxmann, pp. 39–54.Google Scholar
  127. Teferra, D. (2008). The International Dimension of Higher Education in Africa: Status, Challenges, and Prospects. In D. Teferra and J. Knight (Eds.) Higher Education in Africa: The lnternational Dimensions. Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for International Higher Education, Boston College, pp. 44–79.Google Scholar
  128. Thaver, B. (2003). Private Higher Education in Africa: Six Case Studies. In P. Seleza and A. Olukoshi (Eds.) African Universities in Twenty-First Century. Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, Vol. I, pp. 69–83.Google Scholar
  129. The Economist. Spending on Education. January 21, 2010.Google Scholar
  130. The United States Declaration of Independence, Preamble, Paragraph 2. (1776).Google Scholar
  131. The World Bank Annual Report. (2002). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  132. Tomori, S. O. and Tomori, O. W. (2004). Revisiting the African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation (AAF-SAP) in Contemporary Nigeria. In B. Onimode et al. (Eds.) African Development and Governance Strategies in the 21st Century: Looking Back to Move Forward. Essays in Honor of Adebayo Adedeji at Seventy. New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  133. Transparency International. Africa Education Watch: Good Governance Lessons from Primary Education. Accessed at on February 27, 2010.
  134. Turner, F. M. (1996). The Idea ofa University. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 15.Google Scholar
  135. Uchendu, V. C. (1979). Education & Politics in Tropical Africa. Owerri, Nigeria: Conch Magazine.Google Scholar
  136. UNAIDS. (2006). Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  137. UNAIDS. (2008). Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  138. Verspoor, A. (2010). Sub-Saharan Africa: Overview Stalled Progress in Primary Education, beyond PrimaryEducation, Unprecedented Expansion of Tertiary Education, Private Education.
  139. Villalon, L. and Tidjani-Alou, M. (2012). Religion and Education Reform in Africa: Harnessing Religious Values to Developmental Ends. Retrieved May 15, 2013, from Africa, Power and Politics:
  140. Wa Thiong’o, N. (1964). WeepNot, Child. Heinemann.Google Scholar
  141. Waghid, Y. (2011). Conceptions of Islamic Education: Pedagogical Framings. NewYork: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  142. Walker, N. (1980). Punishment, Danger and Stigma: The Morality of Criminal Justice. New Jersey: Barnes and Noble Books.Google Scholar
  143. Wa Thiong’o, N. (1964). WeepNot, Child. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  144. Webometrics. (2013). International Journal of Scientometrics, Infometrics and Bibliometrics. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from
  145. Wright, L. (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  146. Young, C. (1997). The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Zegeye, A. and Vambe, M. (2006). Knowledge Production and Publishing in Africa. Development Southern Africa, 23(3), 333–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mbaye Lo 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mbaye Lo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations