In the aftermath of the development of the Entente Cordiale, and other international developments, the British government was modifying its foreign policy in the direction of a new entente with the Tsarist state. For most of the nineteenth century, Russia had been seen as the greatest threat to Britain’s imperial interests. In the post-‘splendid isolation’ diplomatic world with which this volume is concerned, Britain had been reconsidering its imperial over-stretch, and as a result, during 1907, Britain and Russia came to a series of diplomatic agreements. This took the shape of a substantial number of individual treaties dealing with a range of aspects of Anglo-Russian imperial tensions in regions stretching from Afghanistan to Persia. Effectively, it was the ending of the Great Game. The resulting Anglo-Russian Entente, similar to that Britain had with France and Spain, was more to do with a lessening of tension than with formal treaties, however. In this particular process, there seemed to be neither a role nor a need for royal diplomacy. The Anglo-Russian Entente was achieved without a state visit. However, in its aftermath, a state visit was made in 1908 by Edward VII to Russia, followed by a 1909 return formal visit by the Tsar to Britain. These visits are significant, especially the former, because of the further insight given into the pomp and ceremonial aspects of royal diplomacy.
- Prime Minister
- Foreign Policy
- British Government
- Russian Government
- State Visit
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If there is a monarchy which does conform to Hobsbawm’s invention of tradition concept, it is the German monarchy post 1871. See, for example, John Röhl and Nicolaus Sombart (eds) (1982) Kaiser Wilhelm II, New Interpretations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press);
John Röhl (1999) The Kaiser and his Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press);
John Röhl (2004) Wilhelm II: The Kaiser’s Personal Monarchy, 1888–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Raymond A. Esthus (1981) ‘Nicholas II and the Russo-Japanese War’, Russian Review 40 (4), pp. 396–411.
Dominic Lieven (1993) Nicholas II, Emperor of All the Russias (London: BCA), p. 160.
Keith Neilson (1995) Britain and the Last Tsar, British Policy and Russia 1894–1917 (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
Friedrich Stieve (1926) Isvolsky and the World War (London: George Allen and Unwin), p. 11;
George Monger (1976) The End of Isolation. British Foreign Policy 1900–1907 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1976), p. 293.
Most prominent among Edward’s biographers on this are Sidney Lee and Christopher Hibbert, but see also Sir Frederick Ponsonby (1951) Recollections of Three Reigns (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode).
Hans Brems (1971) ‘Great-Power Tension and Economic Evolution in Finland since 1809’, Journal of Economic Issues, 5 (4), p. 7.
Zara S. Steiner (1986) The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy 1898–1914 (London: Ashfield Press).
Edward Grey (1931) Speeches on Foreign Affairs 1904–1914 (London: George Allen and Unwin), p. 93.
Anthony Allfrey (1991) Edward VII and His Jewish Court (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson).
Christopher Hibbert (2007) Edward VII. The Last Victorian King (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
S.M. Dubnow (1920) History of the Jews in Russia and Poland. From the Earliest Times until the Present Day, 3 vols (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America). Vol III: From the Accession of Nicholas II, until the Present Day, p. 11.
Niall Ferguson (2000) The House of Rothschild. The World’s Banker 1849–1998 (London: Penguin Books, 2000), p. 251.
Lord Hardinge of Penshurst (1947) Old Diplomacy (London: Butler and Tanner), p. 155.
Catrine Clay (2006) King, Kaiser, Tsar. Three Cousins Who Led the World to War (London: Bloomsbury, 2006) p. 271.
M.B. Cooper (1964) ‘British Policy in the Balkans 1908–09’, The Historical Journal, 7 (2), p. 262.
Isaac Don Levine (1920) The Kaiser’s Letters to the Tsar (London: Hodder and Stoughton Limited), p. 223.
H. Gooch and G.P. Temperley (1927) British Documents on the Origins of the War, 10 vols (London: HMSO). Vol. 1, no. 318, p. 256.
© 2015 Matthew Glencross
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Glencross, M. (2015). Dealing with the Great Bear: Edward VII’s Visit to Russia. In: The State Visits of Edward VII. Palgrave Studies in Modern Monarchy. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137548993_8
Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, London
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