In Search of the Citizen Scholar: Modern Pedagogical Approaches Compared

  • Gavin R. Armstrong
  • Alastair J. S. Summerlee
Part of the Palgrave Critical University Studies book series (PCU)


Learning should be a magical experience: it should be a journey of epic proportions and like all good epics it should be challenging, emotionally draining and fun. It should be mentally and physically tough, full of unexpected twists and turns interspersed with moments of wonder. It should also be frustrating, demoralising and captivating. This kind of journey will not only instil in learners a love of learning but will equip them with the skills for the workplace in the future.


Completion Rate Ethical Leadership Deep Learning Design Thinking Massive Open Online 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altbach, P.G., 1999. Patterns in higher education development. In: American Higher Education in the 21st Century: Social, Political and Economic Challenges. Ed. P.G. Altbach, R.O. Berdhal, P.J. Gumport. Baltimore, ML, USA: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L. and Rumbley, L.E., 2009. Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. A Report Prepared for the UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Available at: [accessed 12 March 2012].Google Scholar
  3. Astin, A.W., 1984. Preventing Students from Dropping Out. Wiley: Jossey-Bass San Francisco.Google Scholar
  4. Astin, A.W., 1993. What Matters in College? Four Critical Years Revisited, 1st edition. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Barrows, H., 1986. A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education 20:481–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biggs, J., 1987. Student approaches to learning and studying. Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.Google Scholar
  7. Cantor, J.A., 1995. Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Washington DC ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No.7.Google Scholar
  8. Casey, D.M., 2008. A journey to legitimacy: the historical development of distance education through technology. TechTransfer 52:45–51.Google Scholar
  9. Chapman, S., McPhee, P. and Proudman, B., 1995. What is experiential education? In: The Theory of Experiential Education. Ed. K. Warren, pp. 235–248. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  10. Chickering, A.W. and Gamson, Z.F., 1977. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 39:3–7.Google Scholar
  11. Christensen-Hughes, J. and Mighty, J. (eds), 2010. Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, Queen’s Policy Studies Series.Google Scholar
  12. Crosling, G., Heagney, M. and Thomas, L., 2009. Improving student retention in higher education. Australian Universities Review 51:9–18.Google Scholar
  13. Conger, J.A. and Kanungo, R. N., 1988. The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review 13:471–482.Google Scholar
  14. Coursera, 2013. Five courses receive college credit recommendations. Available at: [accessed 13 February 2014].
  15. Cuban, L., 1999. How Scholars Trumped Teachers: Constancy and Change in University Curriculum, Teaching and Research, 1890–1990. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  16. Daniel, J., 2012. Making sense of MOOCs: musing in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 3. Available at:–18/html [accessed 7 October 2014].
  17. deWaard, I., 2011. Explore a new learning frontier: MOOCs. Learning Solutions Magazine, 25 July 2011. Available at: [accessed 6 October 2014].
  18. Dille, B. and Mezack, M., 1991. Identifying predictors of high-risk among community college telecourse students. American Journal of Distance Education 45:24–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ewert, A. and Sibthorp, J., 2009. Creating outcomes through experiential education; the challenge of confounding variables. Journal of Experiential Education 3:376–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fini, A., 2009. The technological dimension of a massive open online course: the case of the CCKo8 course tools. The International Review of Open and Distance Learning 10. Available at: 643/1410 [accessed 6 October 2014].
  21. Gao, F., Luo, T. and Zhang, K., 2012. Tweeting for learning: a critical analysis of research on microblogging in education published in 2008–2011. British Journal of Educational Technology 43:783–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gibbs, G., 1981. Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing. Re-published by Oxford Brooks University. Available at: ocsld/resources/20reasons.html [accessed 6 April 2012].Google Scholar
  23. Jiusto, S. and DiBiasio, D., 2006. Experiential learning environments: do they prepare our students to be self-directed, life-long learners. Journal of Engineering 56:196–204.Google Scholar
  24. Jordan, K. 2013. MOOC completion rates: The data. 11 March 2013. Available at: [accessed 16 March 2014].
  25. Kett, J.F., 1994. Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties: From Self-improvement to Adult Education in America. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kim, S., 2013. US software developer caught outsourcing his job to China. ABC News Online, 17 January. Available at: 18230346 [accessed 6 October 2014].
  27. Kizilcec, R.F., Piech, C. and Schneider, E., 2013. Deconstructing disengagement: analyzing learner subpopulations in massive open online courses LAK Conference Presentation. Available at: wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Kizilcec-Piech-Schneider-2013-Deconstructing-Disengagement-Analyzing-Learner-Subpopulations-in-Massive-Open-Online-Courses.pdf [accessed 7 October 2014].
  28. Koh, G.C-H., Khoo, H.E. and Koh, D., 2008. The effects of problem-based learning during medical school on physician competency: a systematic review. Canadian Medical Association Journal B 178:34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kolowich, S., 2013. In deals with 10 public universities, Coursera bids for role in credit courses. Chronicle of Higher Education, 30 May. Available at: Experts_Seminar_2013/In_Deals_With_10_Public_Universities__Coursera_ Bids_for_Role_in_Credit_Courses_-_Technology_-_The_Chronicle_of_Higher_ Education.pdf [accessed 7 October 2014].
  30. Kop, R., 2011. The challenges to connectivist learning on open online networks: learning experiences during a massive open online course. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Special Issue — Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning 12. Available at: 19040607 [accessed 7 October 2014].
  31. Kop, R. and Fournier, H., 2010. New dimensions to self-directed learning in an open networked learning environment. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning 7:1–19.Google Scholar
  32. Koutropoulos, A. and Hogue, R.J., 2012. How to success in a MOOC-Massive online open course. eLearning Guild, October 08, 2012 Available at: How%20to%20Succeed%20in%20a%20MOOC%20-%20Massive%20Online %20Open%20Course%20(Oct%2012).pdf [accessed 6 October 2014].
  33. Koutropoulos, A., Gallagher, M.S., Abajian, S.C., deWaard, I., Hogue, R.J., Keskin, N.Ö. and Roriguez, C.O., 2012. Emotive vocabulary in MOOCs: context and participant retention. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning Available at: [accessed 6 October 2014].
  34. Kuh, G.D., 2001. Assessing What Really Matters to Student Learning: Inside the National Survey of Student Engagement. Change 33:10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuh, G.D., 2005. Stimulating engagement in the first year of college. In: Challenging and Supporting the First Year Student: A Handbook for Improving the First Year of College, Ed. L.M. Upcraft, J.N. Gardner and B.O. Barefoot. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  36. Kuh, G.D., 2008. High Impact Educational Practices: What Are They, Who Has Access to Them and Why They Matter. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  37. Levin, T., 2013. California bill seeks campus credit for online study. The New York Times, 13 March. Available at: education/california-bill-would-force-colleges-to-honor-online-classes.html?_ r=2& [accessed 6 October 2014].
  38. Lewis, J.H. and Williams, C.J., 1994. Introduction. In: Experiential Learning; A New Approach. Ed. L. Jackson and R.S. Caffarella, chapter 1, pp. 5–16. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  39. Liyanagunawardena, T.R., Adams, A.A. and Williams, S.A., 2013. MOOCs: a systematic study of published literature 2008–2012. Available at: [accessed 2 October 2014].
  40. Mackay, R.F., 2013. Learning analytics at Stanford takes a huge leap forward with MOOCs Stanford Report Stanford University, 11 April. Available at: [accessed 6 October 2014].
  41. Mak, S., Williams, R. and Mackness, J., 2010. Blogs and forums as communication and learning tools in a MOOC. In: Networked Learning Conference. Ed. L. Dirchkinck, V. Hodgson, C. Jones, M. de Laat, D. McConnell and T. Ryberg, pp. 275–285. Lancaster, UK: University of Lancaster.Google Scholar
  42. Marton, F. and Säljö, R., 1976a. On qualitative differences in learning — 1: Outcome and process. British Journal and Educational Psychology 46:4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marton, F. and Säljö, R., 1976b. On qualitative differences in learning — 2: Outcome as a function of the learner’s conception of the task. British Journal and Educational Psychology 46:115–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G. and Cormier, D., 2010. The MOOC Model for Digital Practice, SSHRC Knowledge Synthesis Grant on the Digital Economy. Available at: Final.pdf [accessed 2 October 2014].
  45. Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., and Margaryan, A., 2013. Patterns of engagement in connectivist MOOCs. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. Available at: [accessed 2 October 2014].
  46. Murray, J. and Summerlee, A.J.S., 2007. The impact of problem-based learning in an interdisciplinary first-year program on student learning behaviour. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 37:87–107.Google Scholar
  47. Nandi, P.L., Chan, J.N.F., Chan, C.P.K., and Chan, L.P., 2000. Undergraduate medical education: comparison of problem-based learning and conventional teaching. Hong Kong Medical Journal 6:301–306.Google Scholar
  48. Newman, M., 2003. Campbell collaboration systematic review group on the effectiveness of problem-based learning. A Pilot Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning. Newcastle upon Tyne (UK): University of Newcastle upon Tyne.Google Scholar
  49. Paillie, W. and Carr, D.H., 1987. The McMaster Medical Educational Philosophy in Theory, Practice and Historical Perspective. Medical Teacher 9:59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pappano, L. 2014. The year of the MOOC. The New York Times, 18 April. Available at: [accessed 2 October 2014].
  51. Pascarella, E.T. and Terenzini, P.T., 2005. How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  52. Pintrich, P.R., 2003. A Motivational Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology 95:667–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Porter, J.E., 2014. MOOCs, ‘Courses,’ and the Question of Faculty and Student Copyrights CCCC Intellectual Property Annual. Available at: #page=5 [Accessed 6 April 2014].
  54. Qualters, D.M., 2010. Bringing the outside in: assessing experiential education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 124:55–62. Available at: ca%2flogin%3fqurl%3dezp.2aHR0cDovL3NlYXJjaC5lYnNjb2hvc3QuY 29tL2xvZ2luLmFzcHg.ZGlyZWN0PXRydWUmZGI9ZXJpYyZBTj1FSjkxMjg 1MyZzaXRlPWVob3N0LWxpdmU- [accessed 22 October 2013].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rait, R.S., 1912. Life in the Medieval University. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Robinson, K., 2006. Ken Robinson says schools kill creativity. In: TED Talks 2006. Available at: creativity.html [accessed 6 April 2012].
  57. Robinson, K., 2010. Changing Education Paradigms. Uploaded by RSA Animate, 14 October 2010. Available at: [accessed 6 April 2012].
  58. Rodriguez, C.O., 2012. MOOCs and the AI-Stanford like courses: two successful and distinct course formats for massive open online courses. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. Available at: Special&sp=init2&article=516 [accessed 2 October 2014].
  59. Saettler, LP., 1968. A History of Instructional Technology. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0070544107.Google Scholar
  60. Schmidhuber, J., 2014. Deep learning in neural networks: an overview Technical Report IDSIA-03–14/asXi:1404.7828 v3 [cs.NE]. Available at: 1404.7828v3.pdf [accessed 22 September 2014].
  61. Schmidt, H.G., Dauphinee, W.D. and Patel, V.L., 1987. Comparing the effects of problem-based and conventional curricula in an international sample. Journal of Medical Education 62:305–315.Google Scholar
  62. Shimbun, Y., 2011. Web exam leak rocks elite school/poster asked for answers in mathematics. English on Yahoo! Japan Site, 28 February 2011. Available at: %2FT110227003929.htm [accessed 2 September 2014].
  63. Summerlee, A.J.S., 2013. Lectures — do we need them at all? In: Large Class Pedagogy: Interdisciplinary Perspective for Quality Higher Education. Ed. DJ Hornsby, R Osman, J De Matos-Ala, pp. 21–32. Stellenbosch, SA: Sun Media.Google Scholar
  64. Summerlee, A.J.S. and Christensen-Hughes, J., 2010. Pressures for change and the future of universities. In: Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Ed. J. Christensen-Hughes and J. Mighty, chapter 14, pp. 243–260. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press, Queen’s Policy Studies Series.Google Scholar
  65. Summerlee, A.J.S. and Murray, J., 2010. The impact of enquiry-based learning on academic performance and student engagement. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 40:78–94.Google Scholar
  66. Vernon, D.T. and Blake, R.L., 1993. Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine 68:550–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Waldrop, M.M., 2013, March 13. Massive open online courses, aka MOOCs, transform higher education and science. Scientific American. Available at: [accessed 2 September 2014].
  68. Williams, S., Terras, M. and Warwick C., 2013. What people study when they study Twitter: classifying Twitter related academic papers. Journal of Documentation 69:384–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zubizarreta, J., 2014. The Learning Portfolio: A Powerful Idea for Significant Learning. Manhattan, KS Idea Centre, Idea Paper No. 44. Available at: [accessed 8 October 2014].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Gavin R. Armstrong and Alastair J.S. Summerlee 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gavin R. Armstrong
  • Alastair J. S. Summerlee

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations