The twenty-first century’s information technology has created a new context for the creation of (digital) money. This new environment provides never before seen flexibility for the design of currencies as well as unparalleled scale for their introduction. It is not surprising therefore that the beginning of the century has been marked by unprecedented experimentation with digital currencies, whether carried out by individuals, small startups, or large Internet businesses. The goals of these experiments have been as diverse as their approaches to solving the multitude of challenges that any large-scale payment system presents. Indeed, one of our objectives was to review these various motivations and the multitude of solutions proposed to address them. What patterns emerge from this dynamic picture?
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