Advertisement

Riot Control Agents

  • Michael Crowley
Part of the Global Issues Series book series (GLOISS)

Abstract

As part of the first stage of the HAC analytic process, this chapter examines the properties of riot control agents (RCAs), explores contemporary research into these agents, examines the current scenarios of their application and highlights arms control and human security concerns pertaining to the misuse of such agents.

Keywords

Security Force Material Safety Data Sheet Special Rapporteur Israel Defence Force Chemical Weapon Convention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    For further detailed discussion see Olajos, J. and Salem, H. Riot Control Agents: Pharmacology, Toxicology, Biochemistry and Chemistry, Journal of Applied Toxicology, volume 21, 2001, pp. 355–391; Salem, H., Gutting, B., Kluchinsky, T., Boardman, C., Tuorinsky, S. and Hout, J. Riot Control Agents, in Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare, Borden Institute, Office of The Surgeon General, AMEDD Center & School, US Army, 2008, pp. 441–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Olajos, J. and Salem, H. (2001) op.cit., p. 356; Salem, H. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 442; Sutherland, R. Chemical and Biochemical Non-Lethal Weapons, Political and Technical Aspects, SIPRI Policy Paper 26, Stockholm, Sweden: SIPRI, 2008, p. 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p.12.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Table modified from Olajos, J. and Salem, H. (2001) op.cit., p. 379. The inhalation toxicity is expressed by the notation Ct. It is defined as the product of the concentration in mg m− 3 multiplied by the exposure time (t) in minutes. The terms LCt50 and ICt50 describe the airborne dosages that are lethal (L) or incapacitating (I) to 50% of the exposed population.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 443.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fumanski, M. Historical Military Interest in Low-Lethality Biochemical Agents, in Pearson, A., Chevrier, M. and Wheelis, M. (eds), Incapacitating Biochemical Weapons. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007, p. 38.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p. 14.Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    See for example: Thorburn, K. M. Injuries After Use of the Lachrimatory Agent Chloroacetophenone in a Confined Space, Archive of Environmental Health, volume 37, 1982, pp. 182–186; Stein, A. and Kirwan, W. Chloracetophenone (Tear Gas) Poisoning: A Clinico-pathologic Report, Journal of Forensic Science, volume 9, 1964, pp. 374–382. As cited in: Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 12.
    Hu, H., Fine, J., Epstein, P., Kelsey, K., Reynolds, P. and Walker, B. Tear Gas: Harassing Agent or Toxic Chemical? Journal of the American Medical Association, volume 262, 1989, pp. 660–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 13.
    Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 444.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p.13.Google Scholar
  12. 18.
    Kluchinsky, T. A. Jr., Savage, P. B., Fitz, R., Smith, P. A. Liberation of Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Chloride During High Temperature Dispersion of CS Riot Control Agent, AIHA J (Fairfax, Va), volume 63, 2002, pp. 493–496; Kluchinsky, T. A. Jr., Savage, P. B., Sheely, M. V., Thomas, R. J., Smith, P. A. Identification of CS-Derived Compounds Formed During Heat-Dispersion of CS Riot Control Agent, Journal of Microcolumn Separations, volume 13, number 5, September 2001, pp. 186–190, as cited in Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 26.
    Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 466.Google Scholar
  14. 27.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p. 15.Google Scholar
  15. 28.
    Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 466.Google Scholar
  16. 32.
    Walker, J. Britain and Disarmament: The UK and Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Weapons Arms Control and Programmes 1956–1975, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2012, p. 44.Google Scholar
  17. 33.
    Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., pp. 452–454.; Amnesty International, Pain Merchants: Security Equipment and Its Use in Torture and Other Ill-Treatment, ACT 40/008/2003, London: Amnesty International, 2nd December 2003, pp. 63–67.Google Scholar
  18. 35.
    Salem, H. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 453.Google Scholar
  19. 36.
  20. 38.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., pp. 21–22.Google Scholar
  21. 40.
    Salem, H. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 464.Google Scholar
  22. 41.
    , p. 464 Ibid.Google Scholar
  23. 42.
    , p. 464 Ibid.Google Scholar
  24. 43.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., pp. 14–15.Google Scholar
  25. 44.
    Salem, H. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 464.Google Scholar
  26. 45.
    World Health Organization Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons, 1st Edition, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 1970, pp. 24, 55, as cited in: Salem, H., Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 464.Google Scholar
  27. 46.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., pp. 14–15.Google Scholar
  28. 48.
    See for example, Salem. H, Gutting, B. and Kluchinsky, T. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 464.Google Scholar
  29. 51.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p.15.Google Scholar
  30. 52.
    Salem, H. et al. (2008) op.cit., p. 455.Google Scholar
  31. 53.
    Ibid., p. 456.Google Scholar
  32. 54.
    Ibid., p. 457.Google Scholar
  33. 68.
    Hymes, K. Non-Lethal Weapons in Escalation of Force, Slide 11. Proceedings of the 5th European Symposium on Non-Lethal Weapons, Ettlingen, Germany, 11–13th May 2009; Hambling, D. US Military Malodorant Missiles Kick Up a Stink, New Scientist, issue 2867, 4th June 2012.Google Scholar
  34. 82.
    Stoppford, W. and Olajos, E. Issues/Concerns, Needs, Emerging Concepts/Trends, and Advances in Riot Control Agents, in Olajos, E. and Stoppford, W. (eds), Riot Control Agents: Issues in Toxicology, Safety, and Health. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004, p. 323.Google Scholar
  35. 83.
    Dimitroglou, Y., Rachiotis, G. and Hadjichristodoulou, C. Exposure to the Riot Control Agent CS and Potential Health Effects: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, volume 12, January 2015, pp. 1397–1411; Haber, L., et al., Human effectiveness and risk characterization of OC and P AVA handheld devices. Air Force Research Laboratory, DTIC Technical Report No. ADA476262, 1st May 2007; Hilmas, C., Poole, M., Katos, A. and Williams, Riot Control Agents, in Gupta, R. (ed.), Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. London: Academic Press, 2009, pp. 153–175; Levin, R and Mershon, M. Contact Sensitization to CS, A Riot Control Agent, Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1973; Salem, H et al. (2008) op.cit.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 84.
    Dimitroglou, Y., et al. (2015) op.cit.; Hilmas et al. (2009) op.cit.; Worthington, E. and Nee, P. CS Exposure-clinical Effects and Management, Journal of Accident Emergency Medicine, volume 168, 1999, pp. 168–170; U.K. Department of Health 1999 Annual Report of the Committees on Toxicity Mutagenicity Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the EnvironmentCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 85.
    Mendelson, J., Tolliver, B., Delucchi, K., Baggott, M., Flower, K., Harris, W., Galloway, G. and Berger, P. Capsaicin, an Active Ingredient in Pepper Sprays, Increases Lethality of Cocaine, Forensic Toxicology, volume 28, number 1, January 2010, pp. 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 87.
    Rappert, B. Health and Safety in Policing: Lessons from the Regulation of CS Sprays in the UK, Social Science & Medicine, volume 56, 2003, p. 1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 88.
    Holopainen, M., Moilanen J., Hack, T. and Tervo, T. Toxic Carriers in Pepper Sprays may Cause Corneal Erosion, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, volume 186, 2003, pp. 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 89.
    According to the UK Health Protection Agency, trichloroethylene is “highly toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact”. Inhalation can “cause irritation of the respiratory tract, and sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias”. It is considered to be “probably carcinogenic and mutagenic” and presents a “possible risk to the unborn child”. [Foxall, K., Trichloroethylene, UK Health Protection Agency, 2008] See also Vesaluoma, M., Muller, L., Gallar, J., Lambiase, A., Moilanen, J., Hack, T., Belmonte, C. and Tervo, T. Effects of Oleoresin Capsicum Pepper Spray on Human Corneal Morphology and Sensitivity, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, volume 41, number 8, July 2000, pp. 2138–2147.Google Scholar
  41. 91.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p. 23.Google Scholar
  42. 92.
    Zarc International Incorporated, Consumer Alert: DuPont Cautions Against Use of HCFC Dymel in Pepper Sprays, 20 August 1993; as cited in: Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p. 23.Google Scholar
  43. 93.
    Hay, A., Giacaman, R., Sansur, R. and Rose, S. Skin Injuries Caused by New Riot Control Agent Used Against Civilians on the West Bank, Medicine, Conflict and Survival, volume 22, number 4, 2006, pp. 283–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 94.
    Stoppford, W. and Olajos, E. (2004) op.cit., p. 323.Google Scholar
  45. 96.
    Hill, A., Silverberg, N., Mayorga, D. and Baldwin, H. Medical Hazards of the Tear Gas CS: A Case of Persistent, Multisystem, Hypersensitivity Reaction and Review of the Literature, Medicine, volume 79, 2000, pp. 234–240; Geneva Academy, Riot Control Agents, Weapons Law Encyclopaedia, available at http://www.weaponslaw.org/ (accessed 2nd July 2015).Google Scholar
  46. 98.
    Karagama, Y., Newton, J. and Newbegin, C. Short Term and Long Term Physical Effects of Exposure to CS Spray, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, volume 96, number 4, 2003, pp. 172–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 99.
    Sutherland, R. (2008) op.cit., p.12.Google Scholar
  48. 101.
    See, e.g., Karagama, Y. et al. (2003) op.cit.; Vesaluoma, M. et al. (2000) op.cit.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 104.
    See Chasseaud, L., Bunter, B., Robinson, W. and Barry, D. Suppression of Sebaceous Gland Non-Specific Esterase Activity by Electrophilica β-Unsaturated Compounds, Experientia, volume 31, number 10, pp. 1196–1197; Barry, D., Chasseaud, L., Hunter, B., and Robinson, W. The Suppression of Non-specific Esterase Activity in Mouse Skin Sebaceous Gland by CS Gas, Nature, volume 240, 1972, pp. 560–561. For further discussion see Hu, H., Fine, J. and Epstein, P. et al. (1989) op.cit.; Physicians for Human Rights (2012) op.cit.Google Scholar
  50. 106.
    Carron, P. and Yerson, B. Clinical Review: Management of the Effects of Exposure to Tear Gas, British Medical Journal, volume 338, number 2283, 2009.Google Scholar
  51. 107.
    Casey-Maslen, S., Corney, N. and Dymond-Bass, A. Review of Weapons Under IHL and Human Rights Law, in Casey-Maslen, S. (ed.), Weapons Under International Human Rights Law. Cambridge University Press, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 111.
    According to Danto, “If the CN Cartridges Are Too Old and the Agent Does Not Vaporize Adequately, Small Solid Particles May Strike the Cornea and Cause Damage”. Danto, B. Medical Problems and Criteria Regarding the Use of Tear Gas by Police, American Journal of Forensic Medical Pathology, volume 8, December 1987, pp. 317–322; see also Physicians for Human Rights (2012) op.cit.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 186.
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute/Perry Robinson, J. and Leitenberg, M. The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare, volume 1: The Rise of CB Weapons, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1971; Perry Robinson, J., Hedén, C. and von Schreeb, H./Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Volume 2: CB Weapons Today, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1973; Furmanski, M. Historical Military Interest in Low-Lethality Biochemical Agents, in Pearson, A., Chevrier, M. and Wheelis, M. (eds), Incapacitating Biochemical Weapons, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007, pp. 35–66; Verwey, W. Riot Control Agents and Herbicides in War, Leiden: Brill, 1977; Spiers, E. A History of Chemical and Biological Weapons, London: Reaktion Books, 2010; See also Perry Robinson, J. Disabling Chemical Weapons: A Documented Chronology of Events, 1945–2003, unpublished monograph, October 2003, copy given to author.Google Scholar
  54. 191.
    Bahmanyar, M. Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979–2004: Mountain Strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban and Al Qaeda, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2004, p. 32.Google Scholar
  55. 192.
  56. 202.
    Fry, J. (2010) op.cit., p. 19.Google Scholar
  57. 203.
  58. 218.
    See for example: Avant, D., The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005; Singer, P., Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatizes Military Industry, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 224.
    See for example: Chiara-Gillard, E. Business Goes to War: Private Military/Security Companies and International Humanitarian Law, International Review of the Red Cross, volume 88, number 863, September 2006, pp. 525–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael Crowley 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Crowley
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BradfordUK

Personalised recommendations