Addressing Controversy I: Public Diplomacy between Turkey and Armenia

Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy book series (GPD)


The Turkish-Armenian interstate relations do not appear to have been a problematic issue in the first half of the 1990s. Turkey recognized Azerbaijan on November 9, 1991, and a month later on December 19, all the other states of the former USSR. Turkey established diplomatic relations with Azerbaijan and Georgia in 1992. However, diplomatic relations were though never established with Armenia. In April 1993, Turkey sealed its border with Armenia by closing the Doðu Kapý/Akhourian crossing and halting direct land communications between the two countries in view of the escalating conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and more precisely after the Armenian offensive against Kelbajar which triggered a massive flow of refugees. The border has since been closed and bilateral diplomatic relations have never been established.


Civil Society Prime Minister Civil Society Activity Bilateral Relation Diplomatic Relation 
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© B. Senem Çevik and Philip Seib 2015

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