Addressing Controversy I: Public Diplomacy between Turkey and Armenia
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The Turkish-Armenian interstate relations do not appear to have been a problematic issue in the first half of the 1990s. Turkey recognized Azerbaijan on November 9, 1991, and a month later on December 19, all the other states of the former USSR. Turkey established diplomatic relations with Azerbaijan and Georgia in 1992. However, diplomatic relations were though never established with Armenia. In April 1993, Turkey sealed its border with Armenia by closing the Doðu Kapý/Akhourian crossing and halting direct land communications between the two countries in view of the escalating conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and more precisely after the Armenian offensive against Kelbajar which triggered a massive flow of refugees. The border has since been closed and bilateral diplomatic relations have never been established.
KeywordsCivil Society Prime Minister Civil Society Activity Bilateral Relation Diplomatic Relation
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- 1.Burcu Gültekin and Nicolas Tavitian, Les Relations Arméno-Turques: la Porte Close de l’Orient (Brussels: Group for Research and Information on Peace and Security, 2003).Google Scholar
- 7.David L. Phillips, Unsilencing the Past: Track Two Diplomacy and Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation (New York: Berghahn Books, 2005).Google Scholar
- 11.For a precise mapping of Turkish-Armenian civil society initiatives see Burcu Gültekin Punsmann and Esra Çuhadar Reflecting on the Two Decades of Bridging the Divide: Taking Stock of Turkish-Armenian Civil Society Activities (Ankara: TEPAV, 2012).Google Scholar
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