The Substance of EU Democracy Promotion pp 134-148
Neither Integrated Nor Comprehensive in Substance: Armenia and Georgia
Shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the European Union (EU) moved to establish contractual relationships with the newly independent states. In 1999 Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCA) with Armenia and Georgia were enacted. In view of the 2004 eastward enlargement, the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was established and the South Caucasus countries joined in 2004. Since the initial agreements, the EU’s cooperation with Armenia and Georgia has gradually extended. Besides participating in the ENP, they have also been included in the EU’s Black Sea Synergy (European Commission 2007g) and the Eastern Partnership (European Commission 2008h). The ENP mid-term review in 2011 was the latest effort to redraw EU policies towards its neighbours. The negotiations of the new-generation Association Agreements were concluded with Armenia and Georgia. However, Armenia refused to sign the agreement with the EU and opted for membership of the Customs Union with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan instead. The Association Agreements deepen partner countries’ European integration and widen their political relationship with the EU. The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) that is considered an integral part of the Association Agreement focuses on the economic aspect of the relationship. In addition, the EU concluded visa facilitation/readmission agreements negotiations with Armenia and Georgia and continues visa liberalisation dialogue with Georgia.
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