Standard English or Chinese English? Native and Non-Native English Teachers’ Perceptions

  • Ying Zhang


This study focuses on the comparison of native and non-native English speaking university teachers’ attitudes on varieties of English in English education in China. The impetus for this study comes, firstly, from the ongoing debate about the role of native speaker (NS) norms in English language teaching and testing and in communication more generally, and, secondly, from the tendency amongst non-native users of English to distrust local norms, viewing them as insufficient or at least inappropriate for communicative purposes.


Native Speaker Standard English Apply Linguistics English Language Teaching Applied Linguistic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bai, H. [柏会力] (2008). 英语全球化背景下我国《大学英语课程教学要求》分析及教材研究 [An analysis of the College English Curriculum Requirements and textbooks in the globalization of English]. 中国高教研究[China Higher Education Research], 5, 92–93.Google Scholar
  2. Beneke, J. (1991). Englisch als lingua franca oder als Medium interkultureller Kommunikation [English as lingua franca or as medium of intercultural communication]. In R. Grebing (Ed.), Grenzenloses Sprachenlernen (pp. 54–66). Berlin: Cornelsen.Google Scholar
  3. Bolton, K. (2013). World Englishes, globalization, and language worlds. In N. L. Johannesson and G. Melchers (Eds), Of butterflies and birds, of dialects and genres: Essays in honour of Philip Shaw (pp. 227–252). Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis.Google Scholar
  4. Brutt-Griffler J., & Samimy, K. K. (2001). Transcending the nativeness paradigm. World Englishes, 20(1), 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruthiaux, P. (2003). Squaring the circles: Issues in modeling English worldwide. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(2), 159–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai, J., & Tang, M. [蔡基刚 & 唐敏] (2008). 新一代大学英语教材的编写原则 [Designing principles of new generation college English textbooks]. 大学英语教学 [College English Teaching], 4, 85–90.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, Q., & Klenowski, V. (2009). Assessment and curriculum reform in China: The college English test and tertiary English as a foreign language education. In: Proceedings of the 2008 AARE International Education Conference, 30 November-4 December 2008, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, E., & Paran, A. (2007). The employability of non-native-speaker teachers of EFL: A UK survey. System, 35(4), 407–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cook, V. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), 185–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. (1999). Cultural mirrors: Materials and methods in the EFL classroom. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 196–220). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalby, D. (2001). The linguasphere: Kaleidoscope of the world’s languages. English Today, 17(1), 22–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davies, A. (1991). The native speaker in applied linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Davies, A. (1996). Proficiency or the native speaker: What are we trying to achieve in ELT? In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics (pp. 145–159). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Davies, A. (1999). Standard English: Discordant voices. World Englishes, 18(2), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies, A. (2003). The native speaker: Myth and reality. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  18. Davies, A. (2004). The native speaker in applied linguistics. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 431–450). Malden, MA: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies, A., Hamp-Lyons, L., & Kemp, C. (2003). Whose norms? International proficiency tests in English. World Englishes, 22(4), 571–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dong, Y. [董亚芬] (1992). 大学英语教学的回顾与展望College English teaching: What we’ve done and what we’re looking forward to]. 外语界 [Foreign Language World], 47(3), 23–26.Google Scholar
  21. Elder, C., & Davies, A. (2006). Assessing English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 282–304.Google Scholar
  22. Elder, C., & Harding, L. (2008). Language testing and English as an international language: Constraints and contributions. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 31(3), 34.1-34.11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Feng, A., & Byram, M. (2002). Authenticity in College English textbooks: An intercultural respective. RELC Journal, 33(2), 58–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gnutzmann, C. (2000). Lingua franca. In M. Byram (Ed.), The Routledge encyclopedia of language teaching and learning (pp. 356–359). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English?: A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century. London: British Council.Google Scholar
  26. Graddol, D. (1999). The decline of the native speaker. In D. Graddol & U. Meinhof (Eds.), English in a changing world. AILA review 13 (pp. 57–68). Guildford: Biddles.Google Scholar
  27. Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of ‘English as a foreign language’. London: British Council.Google Scholar
  28. Han, Z. (2004). To be a native speaker means not to be a nonnative speaker. Second Language Research, 20(2), 166–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. He, D., & Li, D. C. S. (2009). Language attitudes and linguistic features in the ‘China English’ debate. World Englishes, 28(1), 70–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. He, D., & Miller, L. (2011). English teacher preference: The case of China’s non-English-major students. World Englishes, 30(3), 428–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hu, X. (2004). Why China English should stand alongside British, American, and the other world Englishes. English Today, 20(2), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hu, X. (2005). China English, at home and in the world. English Today, 21(3), 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jenkins, J. (1998). Which pronunciation norms and models for English as an International Language? ELT Journal, 52(2), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language: New models, new norms, new goals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Jenkins, J. (2002). A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an International Language. Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 89–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jenkins, J. (2003). World Englishes: A resource book for students. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Jin, J. (2005). Which is better in China, a local or a native English-speaking teacher? English Today, 21(3), 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jin, Y. [金艳] (2000). 大学英语四、六级考试口语考试对教学的反拨作用 [The wash-back effects of College English Test-Spoken English Test on teaching]. 外语界[Foreign Language World], 80(4), 56–61.Google Scholar
  39. Kirkpatrick, A. (2002). ASEAN and Asian cultures and models: Implications for the ELT curriculum and for teacher selection. In A. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), English in Asia: Communication, Identity, Power & Education (pp. 213–24). Melbourne: Language Australia Ltd.Google Scholar
  40. Kirkpatrick, A., & Xu, Z. (2002). Chinese pragmatic norms and ‘China English’. World Englishes, 21(2), 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lazaraton, A. (2005, September). Non-native speakers as language assessors: Recent research and implications for assessment practice. Paper presented at the 38th annual meeting of the British Association of Applied Linguistics, Bristol.Google Scholar
  42. Liao, Y. [廖亦斌] (2008). 外籍教师对中学生英语学习作用的调查 [A survey on the importance of foreign language teachers to high school students].教育与管理 [Journal of Teaching and Management], 18, 63–64.Google Scholar
  43. Li, D. C. S. (2007). Researching and teaching China and Hong Kong English. English Today, 23(3–4), 11–17.Google Scholar
  44. Lin, J. [林娟] (2006). 我国大学生眼中的英语 [The image of English in Chinese college students’ eyes: Their attitudes towards English in China]. 吉林大学硕士论文 Unpublished MA thesis, Jilin University, Jilin, China.Google Scholar
  45. Liu, J. (1999). Nonnative-English-speaking professionals in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 33(1), 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Little, D., Devitt, S., & Singleton, D. (1989). Learning foreign languages from authentic texts: Theory and practice. Dublin: Authentik.Google Scholar
  47. Lowenberg, P. H. (2002). Assessing English proficiency in the expanding circle. World Englishes, 21(3), 431–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lukmani, Y. (2002). English in India: Assessment issues. Paper presented at the Hong Kong Seminar, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  49. McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Medgyes, P. (1994). The non-native teacher. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Medgyes, P. (1999). Language training: A neglected area in teacher education. In G. Braine (Ed.), Non-native educators in English language teaching (pp. 177–191). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  52. Ministry of Education. (2004). [College English curriculum requirements (For trial implementation)]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press.Google Scholar
  53. National College English Testing Committee. (1999). [College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) syllabus]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  54. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Quirk, R. (1990). What is Standard English? In R. Quirk & G. Stein (Eds.), English in use (pp. 112–125). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  56. Rampton, M. B. H. (1990). Displacing the ‘native speaker’: Expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. ELT Journal, 44(2), 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Seidlhofer, B. (2001). Closing a conceptual gap: The case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 133–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shavelson, R.J., & Stern, P. (1981). Research on teachers’ pedagogical judgements, decisions, and behaviour. Review of Educational Research, 51(4), 455–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tang, C. (1997). The identity of the nonnative ESL teacher: On the power and status of non-native ESL teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 577–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tang, J., Xing, Q., & Yang, P. [] (2005). [A preliminary research on Chinese theme in College English textbooks]. [College English (Academic Edition)], 302–304.Google Scholar
  61. Timmis, I. (2002). Native-speaker norms and International English: A classroom view. ELT Journal, 56(3), 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Todd, W. R., & Pojanapunya, P. (2009). Implicit attitudes towards native and non-native speaker teachers. System, 37(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tsui, A. B. M., & Bunton, D. (2000). Discourse and attitudes of English teachers in Hong Kong. World Englishes, 19(3), 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang, Y. (1999). ‘College English’ in China. English Today, 15(1), 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Widdowson, H. G. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 377–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Xu, W., Wang, Y. & Case, R. E. (2010). Chinese attitudes towards varieties of English: A pre-Olympic examination. Language Awareness 19(4), 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhai, X. [] (1986). [Intensive reading course of College English]. [Foreign Language World], 23(4), 25–28.Google Scholar
  68. Zhang, B., & Ma, L. [] (2004). [A survey on the cultural content of college English teaching materials]. [Foreign Language World], 4, 60–66.Google Scholar
  69. Zhang, W., & Hu, G. (2008). Second language learners’ attitudes towards English varieties. Language Awareness, 17(4), 342–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang, Y., & Elder, C. (2009). Measuring the speaking proficiency of advanced EFL learners in China: The CET-SET solution. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(4), 298–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhang, Y., & Elder, C. (2011). Judgments of oral proficiency by non-native and native English speaking teacher raters: Competing or complementary constructs? Language Testing, 28(1), 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang, Y., & Elder, C. (2014). Investigating native and non-native English speaking teacher raters’ judgments of oral proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test 9CET-SET), Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 21(3), 306–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ying Zhang 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Zhang

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations