Social functioning is an aspect of successful development that relates to relatively objective, easily assessable, external attributes. Therefore, it provides a good basis for interpersonal comparisons. Since these comparisons use social norms and requirements as criteria, successful social functioning is likely to be influenced not only by a particular society (culture), but also by the historical period in which it is set (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003). Criteria, or indicators, of adaptive social functioning include, for example, medical records as objective measures of health (Pulkkinen, Nygren, & Kokko, 2002), accomplishment of developmental tasks (such as starting a family, finding a job) (Havighurst, 1972), adjustment to social norms (for example, academic achievement, socioeconomic status, career success) (Ng & Feldman, 2014) or absence of risk behaviour (see Schulz & Heckhausen, 1996; Rönka & Pulkkinen, 1995).


Personality Trait Social Functioning Emotion Regulation Romantic Relationship Parenting Style 
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