Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Science and Civilization in Islam (Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1987), Chapter 3, p. 196. The dates of Abu Ma’shar’s birth and death are not certain due to discrepancies in several primary sources; see Charles Burnett, ‘Abu Ma’shar’, Encyclopaedia of Islam, EI3.
Charles Burnett, ‘Abu Ma’shar (A.D. 787–886) and His Major Texts on Astrology’, in Kayd: Studies in the History of Mathematics, Astronomy and Astrology in Memory of David Pingree, ed. G. Gnoli and A. Panaino (Rome: Instituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, 2009), pp. 17–27 (18).
Richard Lemay, Abu Ma’shar and Latin Aristotelianism in the Twelfth Century: The Recovery of Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy through Arabic Astrology (Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1962), p. 45.
Ibn al-Nadim, Kitab al-Fihrist, 2 vols. (Beirut: Khayats, 1964), I, p. 277.
Muhassin ibn ’Ali al-Tanukhi, Niswar al-muhadara wa akhbar al-mudhakara, 8 vols. (Beirut: Dar Sadir, 1971–3), II, pp. 324–6.
Ibn Tawus, The Faraj al-mahmum of Ibn Tawus, trans. and ed. Zaina Matar, 2 vols. (unpublished doctoral thesis, New York University, 1987), I, pp. 144–5, 142.
George Saliba, A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories during the Golden Age of Islam (New York: New York University Press, 1994), Pt. 1, Chapter 2, p. 70.
Dimitri Gutas, ‘Certainty, Doubt, Error: Comments on Epistemological Foundations of Medieval Arabic Science’, Early Science and Medicine, 7 (2002), pp. 276–89 (278–9).
Abu Ma’shar al-Balkhi, Kitab al-madkhal al-kabir ila ’ilm ahkam al-nujum (The Great Introduction), ed. Richard Lemay, 9 vols. (Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale, 1995–6), II, p. 2.
Oliver Leaman, An Introduction to Medieval Islamic Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 187.
George Saliba, ‘The Role of the Astrologer in Medieval Islamic Society’, in Magic and Divination in Early Islam, ed. Emilie Savage-Smith (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 2004), pp. 341–70 (341). Muslim Spain played a pivotal role in the development of sciences and arts during the medieval period, but it is in Baghdad that a kind of Islamic scientific renascence first sparked. Scientific activity flourished in Spain in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
See A. I. Sabra, Optics, Astronomy, and Logic: Studies in Arabic Science and Philosophy (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 1994), I, p. 237.
Sabra, Optics, Astronomy, and Logic, pp. 223–8; Saliba, A History of Arabic Astronomy, pp. 51–2; David Pingree, ‘Astrology’, in The Cambridge History of Arabic Learning: Religion, Learning, and Science in the ’Abbasid Period, ed. M. J. L. Young, J. D. Latham and R. B. Serjeant (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 290–9 (290);
Charles Burnett, ‘The Certitude of Astrology: The Scientific Methodology of al-Qabisi and Abu Ma’shar’, Early Science and Medicine, 7 (2002), pp. 198–213 (201).
C. A. Qadir, Philosophy and Science in the Islamic World (London: Croom Helm, 1998), p. 35.
Bernd Radtke, ‘The Attitude of Islamic Theology and Philosophy to Astrology’, Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies, 8 (2004), pp. 1–11 (6).
Abu Ma’shar, Al-Madkhal, II, p. 3, p. 5; Peter Adamson, ‘Abu Ma’shar, al-Kindi, and the Philosophical Defense of Astrology’, Recherches de philosophie et théologie médiévales, 69 (2002), pp. 245–70 (248).
Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, ed. and trans. F. E. Robins (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), p. 3.
Aristotle, ‘Physics’, in The Complete Works of Aristotle, ed. Jonathan Barnes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), Bk. I, p. 315 (184a10–13).
Lemay, Abu Ma’shar, p. 45; Adamson, ‘Abu Ma’shar, al-Kindi, and the Philosophical Defense of Astrology’, pp. 247–8; Andrea Falcon, Aristotle and the Science of Nature: Unity without Uniformity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 4–5;
Charles Burnett, ‘Aristotle as an Authority on Judicial Astrology’, in Florilegium Medievale: Études offertes à Jacqueline Hamesse à l’occasion de son éméritat, ed. José Francisco Meirinhos and Olga Weijers (Louvain-la-Neuve: Fidem, 2009), pp. 41–62 (39).
Derek Collin, ‘Nature, Cause, and Agency in Greek Magic, Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974), 18 (2003), pp. 20–1 (24–5).
Plotinus, The Enneads, trans. Stephen Mackenna (London: Penguin Books, 1991), II:3, p. 76.
Proclus, The Elements of Theology, trans. E. R. Dodds (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933), Chapter 1, Line 7, prop. 165; ‘commentary’, p. 284.
Iamblichus, On the Mysteries, trans. Emma C. Clarke, John M. Dillon and Jackson P. Hershbell (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003), Bk. I, 17, p. 65.
Julius Firmicus Maternus, Ancient Astrology, Theory and Practice: Mathesos Libri VIII, trans. Jean Rhys Bram (Abingdon: Astrology Classics, 2005), Bk. I, Chapter 4, p. 17.
Ibn Hibinta, Al-Mughni fi ahkam al-nujum, ed. Fuat Sezgin, 2 vols. (Frankfurt am Main: Institute of Arabic-Islamic Science-Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1987);
Al-Qabisi, Introduction to Astrology, ed. and trans. Charles Burnett, Keiji Yamamoto and Michio Yano (London: Warburg Institute, 2004);
Al-Biruni, The Book of Instructions in the Elements of the Art of Astrology, trans. R. R. Wright (London: Luzac & Co., 1934).
Charles Burnett, ‘Al-Kindi On Judicial Astrology: “The Forty Chapters”’, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 3 (1993), pp. 77–117 (79).
David Pingree, The Thousands of Abu Ma’shar (London: Warburg Institute, 1968), Chapter 5, pp. 41–2;
David Pingree, ‘Masha’allah: Some Sasanian and Syriac Sources’, in Essays in Islamic Philosophy and Science, ed. George F. Hourani (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1975), pp. 5–15 (9); in this essay, Pingree notes that the attribution of this treatise to Masha’allah cannot be absolutely affirmed but adds that there is no reason to completely reject it.
Masha’allah, ‘On the Knowledge of the Motion of the Orb’, in Works of Sahl and Masha’allah, ed. Benjamin N. Dykes (Minnesota, MN: Cazimi Press, 2008), pp. 243–99 (244–5).
Ya‘qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, ’Al-Ibana ’an sujud al-jarm al-aqsa wa ta’atihi li Allah ’azza wa jalla’ (‘On the Explanation of the Bowing of the Outermost Body’), in Rasa’il al-Kindi al-Falsafiyya, ed. Muhammad ’Abd al-Hadi, 2 vols. (Egypt: Dar al-fikr al-’arabi, 1950–3), I, pp. 244–61 (245–7);
Al-Kindi, ‘The Prostration of the Outermost Body’, in The Philosophical Works of al-Kindi, ed. Peter Adamson and Peter Pormann (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 175–6.
Emilie Savage-Smith and Evelyn Edson, Medieval Views of the Cosmos (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2004), pp. 46–8.
Peter Struck, ‘A World Full of Signs: Understanding Divination in Ancient Stoicism’, in Seeing with Different Eyes: Essays in Astrology and Divination, ed. Patrick Curry and Angela Voss (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007), pp. 3–20 (7–8); Lemay, Abu Ma’shar, pp. 44, 106.
John D. North, ‘Celestial Influence: The Major Premiss of Astrology’, in ‘Astrologi Hallucinati’: Stars and the End of the World in Luther’s Time, ed. Paola Zambelli (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1986), pp. 45–100 (55).
The topic of magnetism generated a tradition which aimed to explain how lodestone attracts iron. There is much to be said about the development of the history of magnetism, but in the present work, the topic of magnetism is mentioned only in relation to astrological theories which posit that the stars act upon the sublunar world in a manner analogous to lodestone’s attraction of iron. See Charles Burnett, ‘Music and Magnetism: From Abu Ma’shar to Kircher’, in Music and Esotericism, ed. Laurence Wuidar (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 13–21.