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Hybrid Entrepreneurship during Retirement: Comparison of Motives and Aspirations

  • Erno T. Tornikoski
  • Anmari Viljamaa
  • Elina Varamäki
Chapter

Abstract

Hybrid entrepreneurship represents a surprisingly large part of economic activities in many countries. For example, it has been estimated that in Finland as much as 4 per cent of the employed workforce and 4 per cent of the non-employed population (e.g., students, pensioners) are involved in entrepreneurial activities on a part-time basis (Akola et al. 2007; Entrepreneurship Review 2010). Hybrid entrepreneurs (HEs) also represent a significant share of all entrepreneurial activities (Folta, Delmar and Wennberg 2010; Lith 2010). According to one study, full-time entrepreneurs were outnumbered by individuals who engaged simultaneously in self-employment and wage work (Burke, FitzRoy and Nolan 2008). Hybrid entrepreneurship also seems to be an interesting option for starting a new business. At least, over 50 per cent of nascent entrepreneurs — individuals in the process of starting a new venture — are simultaneously engaging in wage-employment (Acs et al. 2005; Reynolds et al. 2004; Gelderen, van Thurik and Bosma 2005; Bosma and Harding 2007).

Keywords

Entrepreneurial Activity Entrepreneurial Intention Growth Opportunity Nascent Entrepreneur Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Erno T. Tornikoski, Anmari Viljamaa and Elina Varamäki 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erno T. Tornikoski
  • Anmari Viljamaa
  • Elina Varamäki

There are no affiliations available

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