Entrepreneurship in a Context of Pending Retirement: The Lived Experience of Older Entrepreneurs
Despite being a relatively recent construct, retirement has been very successfully sold to working people (Freedman 2007). The established pattern of winding down or ending full-time work around the age of 65 (or earlier) to enjoy a life of hobbies and interests is part of the modern life plan for many people, and there is an expectation to let go gracefully accompanying visions of what a normal working life resembles (Kotter 1985). The normative effects of retirement exert influence long before paid work is left for good; retirement reaches back into working lives in pension planning or other provision and creates assumptions over what older people want from paid work and for how long. Dispositions concerning working life have consequently been adapted and propagated: with old age comes economic disengagement (Beckhard 1977). For these reasons, the transition to retirement is best considered a complex process rather than a discrete event (Zissimopoulos and Karoly 2009). But how do the processes and expectations associated with approaching retirement affect those who are self-employed? What are the experiences of entrepreneurship in a context of pending retirement?
KeywordsSocial Entrepreneurship Pension Planning Personal Account Narrative Approach Business Venture
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alvesson, M. (2011). Interpreting Interviews. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Beckhard, R., (1977). Managerial Careers in Transition: Dilemmas and Directions. In J. Van Maanen (ed.), Organizational Careers: Some New Perspectives. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Boje, D. M. (2001). Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. (1999). To the Reader. In Bourdieu, P. et al. (eds.) The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society. Cambridge: Polity PressGoogle Scholar
- Chase, S. E. (2011). Narrative Inquiry: Still a Field in the Making. In Denzin, N. K. and Y. S. Lincoln (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 421–434. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Dini, E. (2009). Older Workers in the UK: Variations in Economic Activity Status by Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Household and Caring Commitments. Population Trends 137. London: Office for National Statistics.Google Scholar
- Freedman, M. (2007). Encore: Finding Work That Matters in the Second Half of Life. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
- Galbraith, C., and D. Latham. (1996). Reluctant Entrepreneurs: Factors of Participation, Satisfaction, and Success. Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research. Wellesley MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
- Gibbs, G. (2007). Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Harding, R. and M. Cowling. (2004). Social Entrepreneurship Monitor UK 2004. London: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor/Foundation for Entrepreneurial Management.Google Scholar
- Illingworth, N. (2006). Content, Context, Reflexivity and the Qualitative Research Encounter: Telling Stories in the Virtual Realm. Sociological Research Online 11(1). www.socresonline.org.uk/11/1/illingworth.html. Accessed 26 April 2014.
- Kanfer, R., and P. L. Ackerman. (2004). Aging, Adult Development, and Work Motivation. Academy of Management Review 29(3): 440–458.Google Scholar
- Kautonen, T. (2008). Understanding the Older Entrepreneur: Comparing Third Age and Prime Age Entrepreneurs in Finland. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management 3(3): 3–13.Google Scholar
- Kibler, E., T. Wainwright, T. Kautonen and R. Blackburn. (2011). (Work) Life after Work: Understanding Barriers to Older Entrepreneurship in London. Paper Presented at the 56th Annual ICSB World Conference; 15–18 June 2011, Stockholm.Google Scholar
- Kotter, J. P. (1985). Power and Influence: Beyond Formal Authority. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Kvale, S., and S. Brinkmann. (2009). Interviews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Leatherby G. (2002). Claims and Disclaimers: Knowledge, Reflexivity and Representation in Feminist Research. Sociological Research Online 6(4). www.socresonline.org.uk/6/4/letherby.html. Accessed 26 April 2014.
- Loretto, W., and S. Vickerstaff. (2011). The Relationship between Gender and Age. In E. Parry and S. Tyson (eds) Managing an Age-Diverse Workforce. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Mallett, O., and Wapshott, R. (2015). Making Sense of Self-Employment in Late Career: Understanding the Identity Work of Olderpreneurs. Work Employment and Society. Online First.Google Scholar
- McNair, S. (2010). A Sense of a Future: A Study of Training and Work in Later Life. Leicester: Nuffield Foundation / NIACE: 144.Google Scholar
- Moody, H. R. (2002). Aging: Concepts and Controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- PRIME (The Prince’s Initiative for Mature Enterprise). (2011). Research. Retrieved from http://Prime.Org.Uk/Tag/Research/. Accessed 26 April 2014.
- Riessman, C. K. (2001). Analysis of Personal Narratives. In Gubrium, J. F. and Holstein, J. A. (eds), Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Shepherd, D. A. (2003). Learning from Business Failure: Propositions of Grief Recovery for the Self-Employed. Academy of Management Review 28(2): 318–328.Google Scholar
- Storey, D., and R. Cressy. (1996). Small Business Risk: A Firm-Bank Perspective. CSME Working Paper 39 (April). Coventry: Warwick Business School. ISSN 0964-9328.Google Scholar
- Wainwright, T., E. Kibler, R. Blackburn and T Kautonen. (2012). Who Are You Calling Old? Revisiting Notions of Age and Ability amongst Older Entrepreneurs. Paper Presented at ISBE 2011 Conference, 9–10 November, the Octagon, Sheffield.Google Scholar