Advertisement

One Size Does Not Fit All: Uncovering Older Entrepreneur Diversity through Motivations, Emotions and Mentoring Needs

  • Thomas Wainwright
  • Ewald Kibler
  • Teemu Kautonen
  • Robert Blackburn

Abstract

Policymakers and scholars have increasingly drawn attention to the growing challenges emerging from the ageing of populations, particularly in advanced economies (OECD 2006; Finlayson 2009; Platman 2003; Weber and Shaper 2004; Wainwright and Kibler 2014). In the British context, one of the more visible policy interventions has been to increase the state pensionable age (SPA), in addition to promoting the extension of people’s working lives through the removal of ageist legislation and the implementation of the 2010 Equality Act (BIS 2011). Scholars have also observed how governments, particularly in Anglo-American economies, have started to transfer retirement planning from the state, placing more responsibility upon individuals to plan their financial activities and secure a comfortable retirement (Langley 2006; Finlayson 2009). While these interventions can be viewed as a reaction to manage the increased costs associated with ageing populations (Morris and Mallier 2003), working in retirement age beyond the SPA often brings difficulties to older employees who can face age-related discrimination in organisations (Porcellato et al. 2010), in addition to health problems (Black 2008) and the need to meet caring responsibilities (Walker et al. 2007).

Keywords

Entrepreneurial Intention Corporate Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Behaviour Small Business Economic Entrepreneurship Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth, S., and C. Hardy. (2008). The Enterprising Self: An Unsuitable Job for an Older Worker. Organization 15(3): 389–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, T. D., and L. T. Eby, eds. (2007). Blackwell Handbook of Mentoring: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  3. Baucus, D. A., and S. E. Human. (1994). Second-Career Entrepreneurs: A Multiple Case Study Analysis of Entrepreneurial Processes and Antecedent Variables. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 19(2): 41–71.Google Scholar
  4. Biniari, M. G. (2012). The Emotional Embeddedness of Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Case of Envy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 36(1): 141–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BIS. (2011). Phasing Out the Default Retirement Age: Government Response to Consultation. London: Department for Business, Information and Skills.Google Scholar
  6. Black, C. (2008). Working for a Healthier Tomorrow. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  7. Botham, R., and A. Graves. (2009). Third Age Entrepreneurs: Innovative Business Start-ups in Mid-life and Beyond — Understanding the Drivers and Removing the Baniers. Interim Report to NESTA. London, February.Google Scholar
  8. Cardon, M. S., M. D. Foo, D. A. Shepherd and J. Wiklund. (2012). Exploring the Heart: Entrepreneurial Emotion Is a Hot Topic. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 36(1): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carstensen, L. L., and J. A. Mikels. (2005). At the Intersection of Emotion and Cognition: Aging and the Positivity Effect. Current Directions in Psychological Science 14, 117–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charles, S. T., and L. L. Carstensen. (2004). A Life-Span View of Emotional Functioning in Adulthood and Old Age. In P. Costa (ed), Recent Advances in Psychology and Aging 5, 133–162. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. Charles, S. T., and L. L. Carstensen. (2007). Emotion Regulation and Aging. In J. J. Gross (ed.) Handbook of Emotion Regulation, 307–327. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, G., J. Knox-Heyes and K. Strauss. (2009). Financial Sophistication, Salience, and the Scale of Deliberation in UK Retirement Planning. Environment and Planning A 41: 2496–2515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curran, J., and R. Blackburn. (2001). Older People and the Enterprise Society: Age and Self-Employment Propensities. Work, Employment and Society 15(4): 889–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deakins, D., L. Graham and Sullivan, R. (1998). New Venture Support: An Analysis of Mentoring Support for New and Early Stage Entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 5(2): 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doern, R., and D. Goss. (2013). From Barriers to Barring: Why Emotion Matters for Entrepreneurial Development. International Small Business Journal 31(5): 496–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eby L. T., T. D. Allen, S. C. Evans, T. W. H. Ng and D. L. Dubois. (2008). Does Mentoring Matter? A Multidisciplinary Meta-analysis Comparing Mentored and Non-mentored Individuals. Journal of Vocational Behavior 72: 254–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finlayson, A. (2009). Financialisation, Financial Literacy and Asset-Based Welfare. British Journal of Politics and International Relations 11(3): 400–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fuchs, V. C. (1982). Self-Employment and Labour Force Participation of Older Males. Journal of Human Resources 17(3): 339–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galbraith, C., and D. R. Latham. (1996). Reluctant Entrepreneurs: Factors of Participation, Satisfaction and Success. In P. Reynolds et al. (eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research, 161–162. Wellesley MA: Babson College Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.Google Scholar
  20. Gephart, R. P. (2004). Qualitative Research and the Academy of Management. Academy of Management Journal 47(4): 454–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hart, M., M. Anyadike-Danes and R. Blackburn. (2004). Entrepreneurship and Age in the UK: Comparing Third Age and Prime Age New Venture Creation across the Regions. Paper Presented at RENT XVIII, November, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  22. Hinz, T., and M. Jungbauer-Gans. (1999). Starting a Business after Unemployment: Characteristics and Chances of Success — Empirical Evidence from a Regional German Labour Market. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 11(4): 317–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jack, S. L. (2010). Approaches to Studying Networks: Implications and Outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing 25(1): 120–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kautonen, T. (2008). Understanding the Older Entrepreneur: Comparing Third Age and Prime Age Entrepreneurs in Finland. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management 3(3): 3–13.Google Scholar
  25. Kautonen, T., S. Down and L. South. (2008). Enterprise Support for Older Entrepreneurs: The Case of PRIME in the UK. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 14(2): 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kautonen, T., S. Down and M. Minniti. (2014). Ageing and Entrepreneurial Preferences. Small Business Economics 42(3): 579–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kautonen, T., S. Luoto and E. Tornikoski. (2010). Influence of Work History on Entrepreneurial Intentions in Prime Age and Third Age: A Preliminary Study. International Small Business Journal 28(6): 583–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kautonen, T., E. Tornikoski and E. Kibler. (2011). Entrepreneurial Intentions in the Third Age: The Impact of Perceived Age Norms. Small Business Economics 37(2): 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kerr, G. and M. Armstrong-Stassen. (2011). The Bridge to Retirement: Older Workers, Engagement in Post-career Entrepreneurship and Wage-and-Salary Employment. Journal of Entrepreneurship 20(1): 55–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Langley, P. (2006). The Making of Investor Subjects in Anglo-American Pensions. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 24(6): 919–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lévesque, M., and M. Minniti. (2006). The Effect of Aging on Entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Business Venturing 21(2): 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mallett, O., and R. Wapshott. (2014). Making Sense of Self-Employment in Late Career: Understanding the Identity Work of Olderpreneurs. Work Employment and Society Forthcoming.Google Scholar
  33. Mazzarol, T., T. Volery N. Doss and V. Thein. (1999). Factors Influencing Small Business Start-ups: A Comparison with Previous Research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 5(2): 48–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mckay R. (2001). Women Entrepreneurs: Moving beyond Family and Flexibility. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 7(4): 148–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meyers, M. (2008). Qualitative Research in Business and Management. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Monk, A. (2009). The Geography of Pension Liabilities and Fund Governance in the United States. Environment and Planning A 41: 859–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moore, S. (2009). No Matter What I Did I Would Still End Up in the Same Position: Age as a Factor Defining Older Women’s Experience of Labour Market Participation. Work, Employment and Society 23(4): 655–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morris, D., and T. Mallier. (2003). Employment of Older People in the European Union. Labour 17(4): 623–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. OECD (2006). Live Longer, Work Longer. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Platman, K. (2003). The Self-Designed Career in Later Life: A Study of Older Portfolio Workers in the United Kingdom. Ageing and Society 23(3): 281–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Platman, K. (2004). Flexible Employment in Later Life: Public Policy Panaceas in the Search for Mechanisms to Extend Working Lives. Social Policy and Society 3(2): 181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Porcellato, L., F. Carmichael, C. Hulme, B. Ingham and A. Prashar. (2010). Giving Older Workers a Voice: Constraints on the Employment of Older People in the North West of England. Work, Employment and Society 24(1): 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. PRIME (2010). Olderpreneur Outcomes Revisited: A Follow-up Study of What Happened to People Aged over 50 Who Contacted PRIME about Starting a Business. London: The PRIME Initiative, London.Google Scholar
  44. Scheibe, S., and L. L. Carstensen. (2010). Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 65: 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh, G., and A. DeNoble. (2003). Early Retirees as the Next Generation of Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 23(3): 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smallbone, D., R. Baldock and S. Burgess. (2002). Targeted Support for High-Growth Start-ups: Some Policy Issues. Environment and Planning C 20(2): 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sullivan, R. (2000). Entrepreneurial Learning and Mentoring. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 6(3): 160–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Praag, C. M., and H. Van Ophem. (1995). Determinants of Willingness and Opportunity to Start as an Entrepreneur. Kyklos 48: 513–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Solinge, H. (2013). Who Opts for Self-Employment after Retirement? A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands. European Journal of Aging 11(3): 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wainwright, T., and E. Kibler. (2014). Beyond Financialization: Older Entrepreneurship and Retirement Planning. Journal of Economic Geography 14(4): 849–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wainwright, T., E. Kibler, R. Blackburn and T. Kautonen. (2011). Who Are You Calling Old? Revisiting Notions of Age and Ability amongst Older Entrepreneurs. In 34th Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ISBE) Sustainable Futures: Enterprising Landscapes and Communities 9–10 November 2011, Sheffield.Google Scholar
  52. Walker, H., D. Grant, M. Meadows and I. Cook. (2007). Women’s Experiences and Perceptions of Age Discrimination in Employment: Implications for Research. Social Policy and Society 6(1): 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weber, P., and M. Schaper. (2004). Understanding the Grey Entrepreneur. Journal of Enterprising Culture 12(2): 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Welter, F. (2011). Conceptual Challenges and Ways Forward. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice 35(1): 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zissimopoulos, J. M., and L. A. Karoly. (2007). Transitions to Self-Employment at Older Ages: The Role of Wealth, Health, Health Insurance and Other Factors. Labour Economics 14: 269–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Thomas Wainwright, Ewald Kibler, Teemu Kautonen and Robert Blackburn 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Wainwright
  • Ewald Kibler
  • Teemu Kautonen
  • Robert Blackburn

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations