Introduction: Pre- and Post-Retirement Self-Employment: Broadening Existing Horizons
The prolongation of life expectancy, concomitant with the shrinking of the younger population, has brought about a shift in old-age dependency ratios and placed an unprecedented level of pressure on already fragile pension systems in many developed economies (Watkins-Mathys 2012; OECD 2013). In the context of a rapidly ageing workforce, impending skills shortages, a tightening labour market, upwards shifts in the minimum age at which individuals become eligible for pensions and the gradual degradation of both private and public pension schemes and in an effort to avert the impeding “pensions crisis”, governments have adopted strategies such as encouraging delayed retirement (Orenstein 2011; Watkins-Mathys 2012). For instance, in the United Kingdom, the Default Retirement Age (DRA) was fully abolished in 2011 (Flynn et al. 2014), while the Japanese government has raised the mandatory retirement age twice since the 1990s (Wood, Robertson and Wintersgill 2010). Such developments have in turn brought about considerable debate in academic and policy circles on ways to prolong the working life of productive older workers (Taylor et al. 2012; Baruch, Sayce and Gregoriou 2014).
KeywordsBusiness Owner Small Business Owner Tightening Labour Market Older Worker Public Pension Scheme
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Arkebauer, J. B. (1995). Golden Entrepreneuring: The Mature Person’s Guide to a Successful Business. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Barclays Economic Reports. (2001). Third Age Entrepreneurs — Profiting from Experience. London: Barclays PLC.Google Scholar
- Baucus, D. A., and S. E. Human. (1994). Second-Career Entrepreneurs: A Multiple Case Study Analysis of Entrepreneurial Processes and Antecedent Variables. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 19(2): 41–71.Google Scholar
- Blackburn, R., M. Hart and M. O’Reilly. (2000). Entrepreneurship in the Third Age: New Dawn or Misplaced Expectations? Paper delivered at the 23rd ISBA National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, Aberdeen University.Google Scholar
- Blackburn, R., L. Mackintosh and J. North. (1998). Entrepreneurship in the Third Age. Suney: Kingston University Small Business Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Botham, R., and A. Graves. (2009). The Grey Economy: How Third Age Entrepreneurs Are Contributing to Growth. National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA). London.Google Scholar
- De Bruin, A., and P. Firkin. (2003). Elder Entrepreneurship. In A. De Bruin and A. Dupuis (eds), Entrepreneurship: New Perspective in a Global Age, 185–205. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- DeVaney S. A., Y. Su, C. Y. Kratzer and D. L. Sharper. (1997). Retirement Saving of Nonfarm Self-Employed Workers: An Exploratory Study. Consumer Interest Annual 43: 58–63.Google Scholar
- Flynn, M., H. Schröder, M. Higo and A. Yamada. (2014). Government as Institutional Entrepreneur: Extending Working Life in the UK and Japan. Journal of Social Policy 43(3): 1–19.Google Scholar
- Goldberg, S. (2013). Business Week: Senior Startups. Business Week 2000. [cited 30 September 2013]. www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/news/hits/000814bw.htm. Accessed 29 September 2014.
- Hart, M., M. Anyadike-Danes and R. Blackburn. (2004). Spatial Differences in Entrepreneurship: A Comparison of Prime Age and Their Age Cohorts. In ISBA: 27th Conference on Entrepreneurship and SME Development in Education, Policy and Research (2–4 November 2004), Newcastle Gateshead.Google Scholar
- Johnson, R. W., J. Kawachi and E. K. Lewis. (2009). Older Workers on the Move: Recareering in Later Life. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
- King, S. (2002). Entrepreneurs’ Measure of Success: Is it More Than Profits? In Proceedings of the 47th World Conference of the International Council for Small Business (ICSB), 16–19 June, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
- Loretto, W., and D. Lain. (2013). Rethinking Retirement: Changing Realities for Older Workers and Employee Relations? Employee Relations 35(3): 1–1.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2013). Ageing Populations: High Time for Action, Meeting of G8 Employment and Labour Ministers, 10–11 March, London, 2005. www.oecd.org./dataoecd/61/50/34600619.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2013.
- Patel, S. H., and C. Gray. (2006). The Grey Entrepreneurs in UK. Milton Keynes: Open University Business School.Google Scholar
- Phillipson, C. (1998). Reconstructing Old Age: New Agendas in Social Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Quinn, J. (1996). The Role of Bridge Jobs in the Retirement Patterns of Older Americans in the 1990s. In Proceedings of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth Conference, 16–23 August, Lillehammer.Google Scholar
- Rogers, K. (2013). Survey Finds Small Business Owners Clueless about Retirement 2012. http://smallbusiness.foxbusiness.com/finance-accounting/2012/03/14/survey-finds-small-business-owners-clueless-about-retirement/. Accessed 30 September 2013.
- Sappleton, N. (2013). Self-employment. In V. Smith (ed.), Sociology of Work. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Sappleton, N. (forthcoming). Gender Congruency Theory, Experience of Discrimination and Access to Finance. In K.V. Lewis, C. Henry, E. J. Gatewood and J. Watson (eds), Women’s Entrepreneur ship in the 21st Century: An International Multi-Level Research Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Taylor, P., C. McLoughlin, E. Brooke, T. Di Biase, M. Steinberg, J. Warburton, S. H. Ng and S. M. Shardlow. (2012). Managing Older Workers during a Period of Tight Labour Supply. Ageing and Society 3(1): 16–43.Google Scholar
- Viana, L. P. (2013). Aging Small Business Owners Put Off Retirement amid Money Fears, 2011. http://smallbusiness.foxbusiness.com/technology-web/2011/ 10/06/aging-small-business-owners-put-off-retirement-amid-mon-ey-fears/. Accessed 30 September 2013.
- Watkins-Mathys, L. (2012). Age and Grey Entrepreneurship. In G. Moss, Lessons on Profiting from Diversity. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Weber, P. (2006). Understanding Mature Small Business Owners: Success and Age-Related Correlates of Success within the Western Australian Tourism Industry. Doctoral diss., Curtin University of Technology.Google Scholar
- Weber, P., and M. Schaper. (2011). Mature-Age Entrepreneurship. In L. P. Dana (ed.), World Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Wood, A., M. Robertson and D. Wintersgill. (2010). A Comparative Review of International Approaches to Mandatory Retirement. London: HM Stationery Office.Google Scholar