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George W. Bush and the Afghan and Iraq Wars

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Abstract

On September 11, three planes flown by al-Qaeda operatives hit three important landmarks—the World Trade Center buildings in New York and the Pentagon in Washington DC. By the day’s end, President George W. Bush had instructed Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to develop a plan to attack al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan. Less than a month after the surprise attacks, Bush ordered the initiation of Operation Enduring Freedom. Australia, the United Kingdom, and France assisted. Just a few days after the al-Qaeda attack on the United States, the president directed the secretary of defense to start thinking about ways to oust Saddam Hussein’s regime. Some eighteen months later, Bush authorized the invasion of Iraq.

Keywords

  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Foreign Policy
  • Security Council
  • Mass Destruction
  • Bush Administration

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Notes

  1. Condoleezza Rice, “Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 1, (January/February 2000): 53 and 60.

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  2. See Donald Rumsfeld, Known and Unknown: A Memoir ( New York: Penguin Group, 2011 ), 285.

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  3. Bob Woodward, Plan of Attack ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004 ), 9–12.

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  4. Richard A. Clarke, Against All Enemies ( New York: Free Press, 2004 ), 227.

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  5. George W. Bush, Decision Points ( New York: Crown Publishing, 2010 ), 135.

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  6. See Dick Cheney and Liz Cheney, In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir ( New York: Threshold Editions, 2011 ), 332.

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  7. Ron Suskind, The Price of Loyalty ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004 ), 325–8.

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  8. See Bob Woodward, Obama’s Wars ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010 ), 37.

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© 2014 Alex Roberto Hybel

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Hybel, A.R. (2014). George W. Bush and the Afghan and Iraq Wars. In: US Foreign Policy Decision-Making from Kennedy to Obama. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137397690_5

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