Laying the Foundations
Despite the views of this particular manager, local residents are vital stakeholders in building a place brand (Kavaratzis, 2012; Zenker & Seigis, 2012). There are many moving parts involved in the place branding process, including an established historical and cultural foundation that often cannot be ignored or simply be rebranded, as well as stakeholder coordination among sometimes-competing interests. When established correctly, place branding can move beyond a simple logo and slogan (Govers, 2013) to become an integral part of strategic place governance efforts (Eshuis et al., 2013) that foster democratic legitimacy (Eshuis & Edwards, 2013). Devising a meaningful place branding strategy that appreciates the relational, co-creational (Kavaratzis & Hatch, 2013) process often proves challenging both in theory and in practice. The theoretical framework offered herein attempts such an integration by showing how cities can move through phases of the image (Baudrillard, 1994) based upon a combination of market models of governance, communication style and language used, and six promotional tactics (branding, media relations, in-house publications, use of outside people or organizations as PR surrogates, aesthetic and affective appeal, and the built environment) (Zavattaro, 2010, 2013a).
KeywordsPublic Relation Brand Equity Brand Image Social Media Platform American Market Association
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