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Historical Context: The Timing of the Attacks

  • Gül Özateşler
Chapter
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Abstract

Although in the Bayramiç case, there were periods during which Gypsyness was unimportant, there were also moments when it gained a “master status” and those labeled as such became more Gypsy. In these contexts, the stigma became more functional. Our case displays not only how the stigma can be used to control power relations in a society, but also when and why it gained that function.

Keywords

Historical Context Rapid Urbanization Total Investment Transportation Sector Forestry Sector 
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Notes

  1. 3.
    Mübeccel B. Kıray, Ereğli: Agir Sanayiden Once Bir Sahil Kasabasi (Ereğli: A coastal town before heavy industry) (Ankara: Devlet Planlama Teskilati, 1964).Google Scholar
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  7. 9.
    In the 1876 Cezair-I Bahr-I Sefid Salnamesi, no Jews or Armenians were recorded. The Jews might have come later; see Rıfat Bali, 1934 Trakya Olayları (Istanbul: Kitabevi Press, 2008).Google Scholar
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    Erik-Jan Zurcher, “From Empire to Republic—Problems of Transition, Continuity and Change,” in Turkey in the Twentieth Century, edited by Erik-Jan Zürcher (Berlin: Klaus Schwarz, 2008), 15–30. Still, the religion of Gypsies can be questioned in the town as in the common suspicions about Gypsies in Turkey. The old Gypsies had traditionally occupied the craftwork and entertainment service while the newcomers from the population exchange had gone into the trade and petty labor.Google Scholar
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    See Kemal H. Karpat, Turkey’s Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959).Google Scholar
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  14. 31.
    See Tekeli and İlkin, Cumhuriyetin Harcı, 369–370, for the background and implication of this policy. For the American influence on highway policy in details, see Robert S. Lehman, “Building Roads and a Highway Administration in Turkey,” in Hands Across Frontiers, edited by Howard M. Teaf and Peter G. Franck (New York: Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1955), 363–410. On page 383, see the increase in the investments in road between 1947 and 1953 from 12,057,000 dollars to 49,752,000 dollars.Google Scholar
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  17. 35.
    Muzaffer Sencer, Türkiye’de Köylülüğün Maddi Temelleri (Material bases of villagehood in Turkey), (Istanbul: Ant Yayınları, Ocak 1971), 69. Industry was also improving. Between 1950 and 1959, the demand for automobiles was met by the imports from Europe and the States. The montage industry emerged in the country in 1954. Between 1955 and 1964, companies involved in automotive industry increased from 2 to 12. In 1964, by a law, the montage industry was directed toward producing. The foundation of the automobile manufacturing like Tofas and Renault started in 1968 and 1969.Google Scholar
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    Ismet Ergun, Türkiye Ekonomik Kalkınmasında Ulaştırma Sektörü (Transportation sector in Turkey’s economic development) (Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakultesi Yayınları, No: 10, 1985), 81. The figures include the total of state, city, and village roads.Google Scholar
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    Yasa, Memduh. Cumhuriyet Donemi Türkiye Ekonomisi 1923–1978 (Turkish economy in the Republican era 1923–1978), (Istanbul: Akbank Kültür Yayını, 1980), Table 5 on 295.Google Scholar
  21. 46.
    John M. Cook, The Troad: An Archeological and Topographical Study (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), 305.Google Scholar

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