Advertisement

Transnational Networks of Dharma and Development: International Aid by Japanese Buddhists and the Revival of Buddhism in Post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia

  • Ranjana Mukhopadhyaya
Part of the Contemporary Anthropology of Religion book series (CAR)

Abstract

Cambodian society is still recovering from the upheavals—wars, mass population dislocation, refugee crises, political executions, foreign occupation, destruction of traditional culture—of the 1970s and 1980s. Cambodian Buddhism and the Buddhist sangha also suffered during this period. The darkest period in the history of Cambodia was the era of the communist regime of Khmer Rouge (1975–1979), led by dictator Pol Pot, when the state apparatus was used to identify and eliminate “antisocialist” elements, resulting in the annihilation of almost one-fourth of Cambodia’s population. The Khmer Rouge policy of agrarian socialism led to widespread persecution of Buddhism in Cambodia.1 Buddhist monks were perceived as antisocialists and laypeople were discouraged from supporting economically unproductive monks, leading to the uprooting of the traditional monastic economy. An estimated 12,500 monks, around 19 percent of the 65,062 individuals who were officially recorded as being in robes in 1969, were subjected to violent deaths. Approximately 60,000 monks and novices were sent for reeducation, forced to disrobe, and enter into marriage or military service. Numerous copies of the Buddhist scriptures, including almost all copies of the Khmer Pali Tipitaka, were destroyed.

Keywords

Picture Book Refugee Camp Khmer Rouge Official Development Assistance Japan International Cooperation Agency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Works Cited

  1. Adachi, Kenki. 2005. “Why Japan Signed the Mine Ban Treaty: The Political Dynamics behind the Decision.” Asian Survey 45 (3): 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bond, George D. 2004. Buddhism at Work. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  3. Chandler, David. 2007. A History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  4. Darlington, Susan M. 2003. “Buddhism and Development: The Ecology Monks of Thailand.” In Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism, edited by Christopher Queen, Charles Prebish, and Damien Keown, 96–109. London: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
  5. DeVoss, David. 1980. “Buddhism under the Red Flag.” Time, November 17, 1980. 90–2.Google Scholar
  6. Hardacre, Helen. 2004. “Religion and Civil Society in Contemporary Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 31: 389–415.Google Scholar
  7. Harris, Ian. 2007. Buddhism under Pol Pot. Phnom Penh: Documentation Center of Cambodia.Google Scholar
  8. Harris, Ian. 2008. Cambodian Buddhism: History and Practice. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hirata, Keiko. 2002. Civil Society in Japan: The Growing Role of NGOs in Tokyo’s Aid Development Policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iriye, Akira. 2002. Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Japan Center for International Exchange, 2007. “Breaking New Ground for NGO Advocacy in Japan.” Civil Society Monitor 12 (August): 1, 6–8Google Scholar
  12. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). 2008. “Understanding Japanese NGOs from Facts and Practices.” Available at http://www.jica.go.jp/english/publications/jica_archive/brochures/2008/pdf/ngo_dis.pdf (accessed June 21, 2013).Google Scholar
  13. JICA website: http://www.jica.go.jp/English/resources/brochures/index.html
  14. Jones, Ken. 2003. The New Social Face of Buddhism: A Call to Action. Boston: Wisdom.Google Scholar
  15. Keyes, Charles F. 1994. “Communist Revolution and the Buddhist Past in Cambodia.” In Asian Visions of Authority: Religion and the Modern States of East and Southeast Asia, edited by Charles Keyes, Laurel Kendall, and Helen Hardacre, 43–73. Honolulu: University of Hawaii PressGoogle Scholar
  16. King, Sallie B. 2009. Socially Engaged Buddhism: Dimensions of Asian Spirituality. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  17. Macy, Joanna 1983. Dharma and Development: Religion as Resource in the Sarvodaya Self-Help Movement. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  18. Maha Ghosananda. 1992. Step by Step: Meditations on Wisdom and Compassion. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. Japanese translation by Kumiko Magome and Masato Noda, 1997. Tokyo: Shunjū-sha.Google Scholar
  19. Mukhopadhyaya, Ranjana. 2005. Nihon no Shakai Sanka Bukkyō: Hoonji to Risshō Kōsei-kai no Shakai Katsudō to Shakai Rinri (Engaged Buddhism in Japan: Social Activities and Social Ethics of Hoonji and Risshō Kōseikai). Tokyo: Toshindō.Google Scholar
  20. Mukhopadhyaya, Ranjana. 2006. “Universalizing Salvation: Modernization, Globalization and Transformations in Buddhist Social Welfare in Japan.” In The Practice of Altruism: Caring and Religion in A Global Perspectives, edited by Ruben L. F. Habito and Keishin Inaba, 23–42. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar
  21. Noda, Masato 1998. “Naihatsuteki-tenkai to Shukyō — Kambojia ni okeru Bukkyō to Kaihatsu” (Endogenous Development and Religion: Buddhism and Development in Cambodia). In Kōza Kaihatsu to Bunka 7, edited by Junzō Kawada et al. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  22. Poethig, Kathryn 2002. “Moveable Peace; Engaging the Transnational in Cambodia’s Dhammayietra.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41: 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Queen, Christopher S. and B. Sallie King, ed. 1996. Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  24. Queen, Christopher, Charles S. Prebish, and Damien Keown, eds. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
  25. Schwartz, Frank J. and Susan J. Pharr, eds. 2003. The State of Civil Society in Japan. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Sekai Shukyōsha Heiwa Kaigi Nihon Iin-kai Heiwa Kenkyūjo (Japanese Committee of the Peace Institute on the World Peace Conference of Religions). 1993. Kambojia Nanmin Kyūen to Shūkyō-kyōryoku (Cambodia Refugee Relief and Religious Cooperation). Research Report 8. Tokyo.Google Scholar
  27. Sekai Shukyōsha Heiwa Kaigi Nihon Iin-kai Heiwa Kenkyūjo (Japanese Committee of the Peace Institute on the World Peace Conference of Religions). 2003. Heiwa Mondai Series IV: Nanmin Mondai. (Peace Problems Series IV: Refugee Problem). Tokyo.Google Scholar
  28. Shanti Volunteer Association. 1996. Ajia Kyōsei NGO:Tai, Kambojia, Laos Kokusai Kyōiku Kyōryoku no Genba kara. Tokyo: Meiishi Shoten.Google Scholar
  29. Shanti Volunteer Association. 2005. SVA Annual Report (2005–2009). Cambodia.Google Scholar
  30. Sivaraksa, Sulak. 2005. Conflict, Culture, Change: Engaged Buddhism in a Globalizing World. Boston, MA: Wisdom.Google Scholar
  31. Takeda, Yasuhiro. 1998. “Japan’s Role in the Cambodian Peace Process: Diplomacy, Manpower and Finance.” Asian Survey 38 (6): 553–68.Google Scholar
  32. Weiner, Matthew. 2003. “Maha Ghosananda as a Contemplative Activist.” In Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism, edited by Christopher Queen, Charles S. Prebish, and Damien Keown, 110–25. London: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
  33. Yamamoto, Tadashi, ed. 1998. The Nonprofit Sector in Japan. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Hiroko Kawanami and Geoffrey Samuel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ranjana Mukhopadhyaya

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations