Stumbling over the First Hurdle? Exploring Notions of Critical Citizenship

  • Elmarie Costandius
  • Margaret Blackie
  • Brenda Leibowitz
  • Ian Nell
  • Rhoda Malgas
  • Sophia Olivia Rosochacki
  • Gert Young


In South Africa the legacy of apartheid still lingers. It is most evident in the income disparity between white and black populations. The mean income of South African blacks (here the term “black” does not include those of colored [mixed race] or Indian descent) has increased at a greater rate in real terms since 1994 compared to other ethnic groups in the country. Nonetheless, the mean expenditure per black household is still approximately five times lower than that of a white household (Ozler 2007). Whilst a single measure cannot hold the complexity of the lived experience of a nation, it remains a fair indicator of the continuing economic disparity.


Critical Thinking Civic Engagement Black Student Critical Consciousness Citizenship Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Martin Davies and Ronald Barnett 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elmarie Costandius
  • Margaret Blackie
  • Brenda Leibowitz
  • Ian Nell
  • Rhoda Malgas
  • Sophia Olivia Rosochacki
  • Gert Young

There are no affiliations available

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