She was nine when he first raped her, though he wasn’t the first to try. Of her four brothers, two had tried but this brother, older by a decade, succeeded. And so it went on and on, raped by him repeatedly for years. Though she was the only girl in the family, she did not have the support she might have expected from her mother. Mummy was simply swamped by the dominance of males in the household, by their incessant demands and expectations and by her own economic dependence, which kept her trapped in subservience. Protecting Amber was too much a call on any leftover strength she might have had. Becoming mute, deaf, unseeing and unfeeling was, she believed, the only option she had for getting through each day. She could not hear Amber’s story or feel Amber’s pain.
- Sexual Abuse
- Child Abuse
- Sexual Violence
- Sexual Exploitation
- Human Trafficking
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
AWID (Association for Women’s Rights in Development) (2004) ‘Intersectionality: A tool for gender and economic justice’, Women’s Rights and Economic Change 9 (August), https://lgbtq.unc.edu/sites/lgbtq.unc.edu/files/documents/intersec-tionality_En.pdf, accessed 02 September 2014.
Baboolal, N. S., Lalla, S., Chai, M., Curtis, R., Nandwani, C, Oliveri, L., and Smith, C. (2007) ‘Childhood sexual abuse among outpatients attending adult psychiatric outpatient clinics: A case-control study’, West Indian Medical Journal, 56(2), 152–158.
Bailey, B. and Tang Nain (2003) ‘The search for gender equity and empowerment of Caribbean women: The role of education’, in G. Tang Nain and B. Bailey (eds), Gender Equality in the Caribbean: Reality or Illusion. Kingston: Ian Rändle.
Bairn, C. (2010) Healthy interactions, behaviour and sexuality: A self-change programme for men who have committed sexual offences. Doncaster: Cheswold Park Hospital.
Barbados Daily Nation (2013) www.nationnews.com, 30 April, accessed 1 March 2014.
Barriteau, E. (2003) ‘Confronting power, theorizing gender in the Commonwealth Caribbean’, in E. Barriteau (ed.), Confronting power, theorizing gender: Interdisciplinary perspectives in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of West Indies Press.
Barriteau, V. E. (1996)’ structural adjustment policies in the Caribbean: A feminist perspective’. NWSA Journal, 8(1), 143–156.
Barrow, C. (2010) Caribbean childhoods ‘outside’, ‘adopted’ or ‘left behind’: ‘Good enough’parenting and moral families. Kingston: Ian Rändle.
Baumeister, R. F. and Heatherton, T. F. (1996) ‘Sell-regulation failure: an overview’, Psychological Inquiry, 7, 1–15.
Bayer, L., Cheetham, N. and Robbins, S. (2011) Youth and unsafe abortion: A global snapshot, International Division, Advocates for Youth. Washington, DC: Advocates lor Youth, www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/1901-youth-and-unsafe-abortion-a-global-snapshot, accessed 14 April 2014.
BBC News Oxford (2013) ‘Child sex ring committed depraved abuse’, 15 January, www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-oxfordshire-21027681, accessed 13 April 2014.
Bronlenbrenner, U. (1977) ‘Toward an experimental ecology ol human development’, American psychologist, 32(7), 513.
Caribbean 360 (2013) http://www.caribbean360.com/news/united-states-roasts-caribbean-human-rights-practices, accessed 02 September 2014.
CARICOM (2011a) ‘HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean: What is HIV/AIDS and how is it spread?’. Guyana: CARICOM, www.caricom.org/jsp/community_organs/aids. jsp, accessed 12 April 2014.
CARICOM (2011b) ‘Model CARICOM Youth Summit: HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean’, http://www.caricom.org/jsp/community_organs/aids.jsp7prnfcl, accessed 02 September 2014.
CARICOM and PANCAP (2008) Caribbean Regional Strategic Framework on HIV and AIDS, 2008–2012: Scaling up the Caribbean Response. Guyana: Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Pan-Caribbean Partnership against HIV/AIDS (PANCAP), www.caricom.org/jsp/projects/crsl-hiv-pancap.pdl, accessed 14 April 2014.
Chevannes, B. (2001) Learning to be a man: Culture, socialization and gender identity in five Caribbean communities. Kingston: University ol the West Indies Press.
Collins, P. H. (1998a) ‘Intersections ol race, class, gender, and nation: Some implications for Black family studies’, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1),27–36.
Contreras, J. M., Bott, S., Guedes, A. and Dartnall, E. (2010) ‘Sexual violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: A desk review’, Sexual Violence Research Initiative, www.svri.org, accessed 10 March 2014.
Cooper, A., Hetherington, R. and Katz, I. (2003) Fhe risk factor: Making the child protection system work for children. London: Demos.
Crenshaw, K. W. (1994) ‘Mapping the margins: Intersectionality identity politics, and violence against women ol color’, in M. A. Fineman and R. Mykitiuk (eds), Fhe public nature of private violence. New York: Routledge.
Crosson-Tower, C. (2008) Understanding child abuse and neglect, 7th ed. New York: Pearson.
Curtis, D. (2009) Pleasures and perils: Girls’ sexuality in a Caribbean consumer culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Day, T., Mckenna, K. and Bowlus, A. (2005) Fhe economic costs of violence against women: an evaluation of the literature. Expert brief compiled in preparation for the Secretary-General’s in depth study on all forms of violence against women, New York, NY, accessed 02 September 2014.
Eastwood, C. J. and Patton, W. (2002) The experiences of child complainants of sexual abuse in the criminal justice system. Canberra, Australia: Criminology Research Council.
Ellsberg, M. (2005) ‘Sexual violence against women and girls: Recent findings from Latin America and the Caribbean’, in S. J. Jejeebhoy, I. Shah and S. Thapa (eds), Sex without consent: Young people in developing countries. London: Zed Books.
Essed, P. (2001) ‘Towards a methodology to identify converging forms of everyday discrimination’. New York: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, Commission on the Status of Women, www.un.org/womenwatch/ daw/csw/essed45.htm, accessed 18 February 2014.
Farmer, E. and Owen, M. (1995) Child protection practice: Private risks and public remedies. London: HMSO.
Ferguson, J. (2003) Migration in the Caribbean: Haiti, the Dominican Republic and beyond. London: Minority Rights Group International, 38.
Finkelhor, D. (1984) Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.
Fortune, M. M. and Poling, J. N. (1994) Sexual abuse by clergy: A crisis for the Church. Decatur, GA: Journal of Pastoral Care Publications.
Freund, K. and Watson, R. J. (1981). Assessment of pedophilia’ in M. Cook and K. Howells (eds), Adult sexual interest in children. London: Academic Press,139–179.
Gagon, J. H. (1990) ‘The explicit and implicit use of the scripting perspective in sex research’, Annual Review of Sex Research 1, 143.
Gallagher, A. T. (2011) ‘Improving the effectiveness of the international law of human trafficking: A vision for the future of the US Trafficking in Persons reports’, Human Rights Review, 22(3), 381–400.
Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L. and Watts, C. (2005). WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Gostin, L. O. (2008) Public health law:power, duty, restraint, 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Greer, C. and McLaughlin, E. (2013) ‘The Sir Jimmy Savile scandal: Child sexual abuse and institutional denial at the BBC, Crime, Media, Culture, 9(3), 243–263.
Halcon, L., Blum, R. W., Beuhring, T., Pate, E., Campbell-Forrester, S. and Venema, A. (2003) Adolescent health in the Caribbean: A regional portrait’, American Journal of Public Health, 93(11), 1851–1857.
Hall, G. C. N. and Hirschman, R. (1992). ‘Sexual aggression against children: a conceptual perspective of etiology’, Criminal Justice and behavior, 19, 8–23.
Hall, G. C. N. and Phung, A. (2001). ‘Cognitive enculturation and sexual abuse’, in J. Schumaker and T. Ward (eds), Cultural cognition and psychopathology (pp.107–118). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Harley D. A., Jolivette, K., McCormick, K. and Tice, K. (2002) ‘Race, class, and gender: A constellation of positionalities with implications for counseling’, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30,216–238.
Herman, J. L. (1992) ‘Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma’, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 377–391.
Hill Collins, P. (1990) Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Hill Collins, P. (1998) ‘Intersections of race, class, gender, and nation: Some implications for Black family studies’, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1),27–34.
Hodge, M. (2013) ‘Commentary: Everyday violence against children’, Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 4, http://hdl.handle.net/2139/16069, accessed 15 April 2014.
Human Rights Initiative (2009) Human trafficking concerns in the commonwealth Caribbean: The 2009 U.S. State Department Trafficking in Persons Report in Focus. London: Human Rights Initiative, http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/lon-don/hr_in_caribbean/human_trafficking_in_the_ca ribbean_june_2009.pdf, accessed 02 September 2014.
International Organization for Migration (2006) World Migration 2005: Costs and benefits of international migration, vol. 3. Academic Foundation, www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/pid/8/ServletSearchPublication?event=detail&id=417, accessed 14 April 2014.
Jones, A. (2009) ‘Social marginalization and children’s rights: HIV-affected children in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago’, Health and Social Work, 34(4),293–300.
Jones, A. (2013) ‘“Pimping your child”: Commercial sexual exploitation and transactional child sexual abuse’, in A. Jones (ed.), Understanding child sexual abuse: Perspectives from the Caribbean. London: Palgrave Macmillan,113–142.
Jones, A. and Trotman Jemmott, E. (2009) Child sexual abuse in the Eastern Caribbean. www.unicef.org/infobycountry/files/Child_Sexual_Abuse_in_the_Eastern_Caribbean_Final_9_Nov.pdf.
Jones, A. and Trotman Jemmott, E. (2013) A culturally contexted study of perceptions, attitudes and opinions on child sexual abuse’, in A. Jones (ed.), Understanding child sexual abuse: Perspectives from the Caribbean. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jones, A. and Trotman Jemmott, E. (forthcoming)’ status, privilege and gender inequality: Cultures of male impunity and entitlement in the sexual abuse of children — lessons from a Caribbean study’. International Journal of Social Work.
Kempadoo, K. (1996) ‘Prostitution, marginality and empowerment: Caribbean women in the sex trade’, Beyond Law, 5(14), 69–84.
Lewis, L. (2004) ‘Caribbean masculinity at the Fin de Siècle’, in R. Reddock (ed.), Interrogating Caribbean masculinities: Theoretical and empirical analyses. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
Lonne, B., Parton, N., Thomson, J. and Harries, M. (2008) Reforming child protection. New York: Routledge.
Marshall, W. L. and Barbaree, H. E. (1990) An integrated theory of the etiology of sexual offending’, in W. L. Marshall., D. R. Laws and H. E. Barbaree (eds), Handbook of sexual assault: Issues, theories, and treatment of the offender. New York: Plenum.
Mercy, J. A., Rosenberg, M. L., Powell, K. E., Broome, C. V. and Roper, W. L. (1993) ‘Public health policy for preventing violence’, Health Affairs, 12(4),7–29.
Millstein, S. G. and Felsher, B. L. H. (2001) Adolescent risk and vulnerability, concepts and measurements. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
Muhender, A. (1996) Rethinking domestic violence: The social work and probation response. New York: Routledge.
Muturi, N. W. and Donald, P. (2006) ‘Violence against women and girls in the Caribbean: An intervention and lessons learned from Jamaica’, Caribbean Quarterly, 52(2/3),83–103.
Ontario Human Rights Commission (2002) An intersectional approach to discrimination: Addressing multiple grounds in human rights claims. Toronto: Ontario Human Rights Commission, http://ais.paho.org/chi/brochures/2011/ BI_2011_ENG.pdf, accessed 02 September 2014.
PAHO (Pan American Health Organization) (2011) Health Situation in the Americas: Basic indicators, http://ais.paho.org/chi/brochures/2011/BI_2011_ ENG.pdf, accessed 1 April 2014.
PAHO (Pan American Health Organization) and CARICOM (2006) Report of the Caribbean Commission on Health and Development. Kingston: Ian Rändle, www.who.int/macrohealth/action/PAHO_Report.pdf, accessed 19 March 2014.
Park, M.S. (2001) ‘The factors of child physical abuse in Korean immigrant families’, Child Abuse & Neglect, 25, 945.
Pasura, D., Jones, A. D. and Da Breo, H. (2013) ‘IMPACT: interventions and mitigations to prevent the abuse of children — it’s time — a public health oriented systems model for change’, in A. D. Jones (ed.) Understanding child sexual abuse: perspectives from the Caribbean (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
Pasura, D., Jones, A., Hafner, J. A., Maharaj, P. E., Nathaniel-DeCaires, K. and Johnson, E. J. (2013) ‘Competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean’, Childhood, 20(2),200–214.
Phoenix, A. and Pattynama, P. (2006) ‘Intersectionality’, European Journal of Women’s Studies, 13, 187.
Pinheiro, P. S. (2006) World Report on Violence against Children: United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children. Geneva: UN.
Quamina-Aiyejina, L. and Brathwaite, J. A. (2005) Gender-based violence in the commonwealth Caribbean: An annotated bibliography. Bridgetown: UNIFEM Caribbean Office.
Reading, R., Bissell, S., Goldhagen, J., Harwin, J., Masson, J., Moynihan, S. and Webb, E. (2009) ‘Promotion of children’s rights and prevention of child maltreatment’, The Lancet, 373(9660),332–343.
Reddock, R. (2004) ‘Caribbean masculinities and femininities: The impact of globalization on cultural representations’, in B. Bailey and E. A. Leo-Rhynie (eds), Gender in the 21st Century: Caribbean perspectives, visions and possibilities. Kingston: Ian Rändle.
Rock, L. F. (2013). ‘Research on child sexual abuse: Caribbean and international perspectives’, in A. Jones (ed.), Understanding child sexual abuse: Perspectives from the Caribbean. London: Palgrave Macmillan,145–167.
Rogers, A. C. (1997) ‘Vulnerability health and health care’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(1),65–72.
Salmon, M. E., Yan, J., Hewitt, H. and Guisinger, V. (2007) ‘Managed migration: The Caribbean approach to addressing nursing services capacity’, Health Services Research, 42(3, pt 2),1354–1372.
Save the Children UK (2008) No one to turn to: The under-reporting of child sexual exploitation and abuse by aid workers and peacekeepers. London: Save the Children UK.
Sedgh, G., Henshaw, S., Singh, S., Âhman, E. and Shah, I. H. (2007) ‘Induced abortion: Estimated rates and trends worldwide’, The Lancet, 370(9595),1338–1345.
Smallbone, S., Marshall, W. L. and Wortley R. (2008) Preventing child sexual abuse:evidence, policy and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Smallbone, S. W. and Wortley, R. K. (2001) Child sexual abuse: Offender characteristics and modus operandi, vol. 193. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute ol Criminology.
Schneider, M. (2000) Public health: science, politics and prevention. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers.
Sokololl, N. J. and Dupont, I. (2005) ‘Domestic violence at the intersections oi race, class and gender: Challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities’, Violence against Women, 11(1),38–64.
Tjaden, P. and Thoennes, N. (2000) ‘Prevalence and consequences ol male-to-lemale and lemale-to-male intimate partner violence as measured by the National Violence against Women Survey’, Violence against Women, 6(2),142–161.
Trotman Jemmott, E. and Maharaj, P.E. (2013) ‘Gendered sexual relations and sexualized gender relations’, in A.D. Jones (ed.) Understanding Child Sexual Abuse: Perspectives from the Caribbean. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
UNICEF (1990) United Nations Convention on the Rights ol the Child, www.unicel.org.uk/Documents/Publication-pdls/UNCRC_PRESS200910web.pdl, accessed 12 March 2014.
US Department ol State (2012) Trafficking in Persons Report 2012. Washington, DC: US Department ol State, www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2012/, accessed 1 March 2014.
Ward, T. and Siegert, R. J. (2002) ‘Towards a comprehensive theory ol child sexual abuse: A theory knitting perspective’, Psychology, Crime & Law, 8(4),319–351.
Wilcox, D. T., Richards, F. and O’Keelle, Z. C. (2004) ‘Resilience and risk lac-tors associated with experiencing childhood sexual abuse’, Child Abuse Review, 13(5),338–352.
World Bank (2003) The World Bank Study on Caribbean Youth Development, Issues and Policy Directions. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Health Organization (2001) Prevention of child abuse and neglect: Making the links between human rights and public health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2011) Unsafe abortion: Global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Wulczyn, F., Daro, D., Fluke, J., Feldman, S., Glodek, C. and Luanda, K. (2010) Adapting a systems approach to child protection: Key concepts and considerations. New York: UNICEF.
Young, R. (1990) White mythologies: Writing history and the west. New York: Routledge.
Yuval-Davies, N. (2006) ‘Intersectionality and feminist polities’, European Journal of Women’s Studies, 13,193–209.
© 2014 Adele D. Jones, Ena Trotman Jemmott, Priya E. Maharaj and Hazel Da Breo
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Jones, A.D., Jemmott, E.T., Maharaj, P.E., Breo, H.D. (2014). An Integrated Systems Model for Preventing Child Sexual Abuse. In: An Integrated Systems Model for Preventing Child Sexual Abuse. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137377661_1
Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, London
Print ISBN: 978-1-349-47802-6
Online ISBN: 978-1-137-37766-1
eBook Packages: Palgrave Social Sciences CollectionSocial Sciences (R0)