How “American” Are “All-American” Brands? A Case of Gap, Inc. as “Made in America” Brand

  • Eulalia Wycoff
  • Rajeev Sooreea
Part of the International Marketing and Management Research book series (INMAMAR)


In the wake of globalization, American businesses are changing their models and strategies in various ways to stay competitive. However, consumers may not always recognize how brand identity can get impacted in this process. This study examines the degree of “Americanization” of Gap, Inc. which is a leading “all-American” retail clothing brand. The study uses primary research to investigate how perception differs among three categories of retail clothing industry agents: consumers, low level employees, and senior management. The results indicate that there is an evolution in market perceptions regarding all-Americanness. Consumer perception of brand is aligned with the dictionary definition while management’s perception transcends the classic definition of “Made in America.” As people become more educated and acquire business knowledge and managerial expertise, style takes precedence over manufacturing location in the definition of what constitutes an all-American brand.


Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility Activity Consumer Perception American Consumer Business Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. all-American. (2013). In Merriam-Webster’s Learners Dictionary. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from Scholar
  2. all-American. (2013). In Macmillan Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from Scholar
  3. Bennett, A., Hill, R., and Oleksiuk, D. (2013). The Impact of Disparate Levels of Marketplace Inclusion on Consumer-Brand Relationships. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 32 (Spring), Special Issue, 3216–3231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackburn, B. (2011, March 10). Clothing “Made in America”: Should U.S. manufacture more clothes? ABC News. Retrieved from
  5. Fashion (2012). Retrieved from (July 2, 2013).
  6. Fetscherin, M. and Toncar, M. (2010). The effects of the country of brand and the country of manufacturing of automobiles. International Marketing Review, 27(2), 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gap, Inc. (2011). 2011 Annual report: Sharing American Style (10-K). Retrieved from Scholar
  8. Keller, K. (2012). Understanding the Richness of Brand Relationships: Research Dialogue on Brands as Intentional Agents. Journal of Consumer Psychology (Elsevier Science), 22(2), 186–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kilic, O., Miller, D., and Vollmers, S. (2011). a Comparative Study of American and Japanese Company Brand Icons. Journal of Brand Management, 18(8), 583–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Moradi, H. and Zarei, A. (2011). The Impact of Brand Equity on Purchase Intention and Brand Preference-the Moderating Effects of Country of Origin Image. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 5(3), 539–545.Google Scholar
  11. National Retail Federation (2012), Retrieved from (July 2, 2013).
  12. Quelch, J. (2007). Globalization and the Future of Brands. Retrieved from Scholar
  13. Samiee, S., Shimp, T. A., and Sharma, S. (2005). Brand Origin Recognition Accuracy: Its Antecedents and Consumers’ Cognitive Limitations. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(4), 379–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shi, Z.M., Wen, L., and Fan, L. (2012). How Chinese Face Perception Influences Consumer’s Implicit and Explicit Attitude towards Brand Country of Origin. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(5).Google Scholar
  15. Van Gelder, S. (2003). Global Brand Strategy. Philadelphia: Kogan Page US.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Anshu Saxena Arora 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eulalia Wycoff
  • Rajeev Sooreea

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations