Paved with Good Intentions: The Way Ahead for Voluntary, Community and Social Enterprise Sector Organisations

  • Clive Martin
  • Lesley Frazer
  • Ellie Cumbo
  • Clare Hayes
  • Katie O’Donoghue


Clinks is a membership or umbrella organisation that exists to support voluntary sector organisations (VSOs) that work with offenders and their families in England and Wales. Drawing on our extensive knowledge of VSOs working in criminal justice, this chapter explores the sector’s past, current and future role in criminal justice, and the barriers and opportunities that organisations face in the current political and economic climate. It provides a background and historical context to the role of the criminal justice VSOs in England and Wales, noting that, despite the stated intention of successive governments, and numerous policy and structural changes, the full potential of the sector has never been realised owing to patchy and unstable support. It then gives an account of how Clinks was formed in response to these challenges, how infrastructure organisations have helped to shape the sector’s independent voice and what the current threats are to this crucial aspect of the sector’s role.


Criminal Justice Service User Criminal Justice System Voluntary Sector Community Sector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barefoot Research and Evaluation (2010) Support for Women around Northumberland: Project Evaluation, [accessed 21/10/13].Google Scholar
  2. Baring Foundation, Civil Exchange and DHA (2014) Independence Undervalued: The Voluntary Sector in 2014, [accessed 11/04/14].Google Scholar
  3. Cabinet Office (2010a) The Coalition: Our Programme for Government, Scholar
  4. Cabinet Office (2010b) The Compact, [accessed 23/10/13].Google Scholar
  5. Cabinet Office (2011) 2010 National Survey of Charities and Social Enterprises, [accessed 15/10/13].Google Scholar
  6. Carey, M. and Walker, R. (2002) The Penal Voluntary Sector, in: Bryans, S., Martin, C. and Walker, R. (eds) Prisons and the Voluntary Sector: A Bridge into the Community, Winchester: Waterside Press: 50–62.Google Scholar
  7. Centre for Social Justice (CSJ) (2013) The New Probation Landscape: Why the Voluntary Sector Matters If We are Going to Reduce Reoffending, London: Centre for Social Justice.Google Scholar
  8. Clinks (1999) Community-based Organisations and Four Prisons in England, York: Prisons-Community Links.Google Scholar
  9. Clinks (2000) Good Practice Guide, York: Prisons-Community Links.Google Scholar
  10. Clinks (2008) Unlocking Potential: How Offenders, Former Offenders and Families can Contribute to a More Effective Criminal Justice System, [accessed 29/10/13].Google Scholar
  11. Clinks (2012a) Clinks Briefing on ‘Punishment and Reform: Effective Probation Services’, [accessed 23/10/13].Google Scholar
  12. Clinks (2012b) Clinks Response to ‘Punishment and Reform: Effective Probation Services’, [accessed 23/10/13].Google Scholar
  13. Clinks (2013) Clinks’ Response to Ministry of Justice Consultation: Transforming Rehabilitation: A Revolution in the Way We Manage Offenders’, [accessed 28/10/13].Google Scholar
  14. Commission on Civil Society and Democratic Engagement (2013) Non Party Campaigning Ahead of Elections, Consultation and Recommendations Relating to Part 2 of the Transparency in Lobbying, Non-Party Campaigning, and Trade Union Administration Bill, [accessed 11/04/14].Google Scholar
  15. Corston, J. (2007) A Review of Women with Particular Vulnerabilities in the Criminal Justice System, [accessed 13/08/13].Google Scholar
  16. Daly, P. (2012) When the Dust settles: An Update, [accessed 30/09/13].Google Scholar
  17. Daly, P. (2013) Economic Downturn: State of the Sector 2013 (October 2013), [accessed 17/12/13].Google Scholar
  18. Farrall, S. and Calverley, A. (2005) Understanding Desistance from Crime: Theoretical Directions in Rehabilitation and Resettlement, Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Gojkovic, D. (2012) Results from a National Survey of Offenders–Why is Awareness and Use of Third Sector Services So Low?, kovic-offenders-and-the-third-sectormay-2012 [accessed 15/10/13].Google Scholar
  20. Hayes, C. (2011) A Review of Service User Involvement in Prisons and Probation Trusts, [accessed 29/10/13].Google Scholar
  21. Hayes, C. and Frazer, L. (2012) RR3: A Report of the Task and Finish Group–Breaking the Cycle of Women’s Offending: As System Redesign, %20Breaking%20the%20Cycle.p df [accessed 21/10/13].Google Scholar
  22. Her Majesty’s Inspector of Prisons (2014) Justice Committee Inquiry into Older Prisoners, Submission by HM Chief Inspector of Prisons,>Google Scholar
  23. HM Government (1998) Compact on Relations between Government and the Voluntary and Community sector in England, London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  24. Hucklesby, A. and Hagley-Dickinson, L. (eds) (2007) Prisoner Resettlement: Policy and Practice, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Hucklesby, A. and Wincup, E. (2007) Models of Resettlement Work with Prisoners, in: A. Hucklesby and L. Hagley-Dickinson (eds) Prisoner Resettlement: Policy and Practice, Cullompton: Willan Publishing: 43–66.Google Scholar
  26. Hucklesby, A. and Worrall, J. (2007) The Voluntary Sector and Prisoners’ Resettlement, in A. Hucklesby and L. Hagley-Dickinson (eds) Prisoner Resettlement: Policy and Practice, Cullompton: Willan Publishing: 174–198.Google Scholar
  27. Jacobson, J., Phillips, C. and Edgar, K. (2010) ‘Double Trouble’? Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Offenders’ Experiences of Resettlement, [accessed 29/10/13].Google Scholar
  28. Jarman, B. (2012) Volunteering Case Studies: Highlighting Good Practice in the Recruitment, Engagement and Retention of Volunteers, [accessed 02/10/13].Google Scholar
  29. Justice Committee (2011) The Role of the Probation Service, [accessed 28/10/13].Google Scholar
  30. Kaufmann, J. (2011) Funders in Collaboration: A Review of the Corston Independent Funders Coalition,–79E7–42CB-BFCF-6E5AFF50B86F/0/CorstonReport.pdf [accessed 25/09/13].Google Scholar
  31. Martin, C. (2002) Recent Progress in Community-based Voluntary Sector Work with the Prison Service, in: Bryans, S., Martin, C. and Walker, R. (eds) Prisons and the Voluntary Sector: A Bridge into the Community, Winchester: Waterside Press: 63–73.Google Scholar
  32. Maruna, S. and Farrall, S. (2004) Desistance from Crime: A Theoretical Reformulation, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 43: 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McNeill, F. (2012) Blog: Whose Responsibility is Successful Re-entry?, [accessed 28/10/13].Google Scholar
  34. McNeill, F. and Weaver, B. (2010) Changing Lives? Desistance Research and Offender Management, SCCJR Project Report No. 03/2010,[accessed 02/10/13].Google Scholar
  35. Meek, R. (2012) The Role of Sport in Promoting Desistance from Crime: An Evaluation of the 2nd Chance Project Rugby and Football Academies at Portland Young Offender Institution, [accessed 21/10/13].Google Scholar
  36. Meek, R., Gojkovic, D. and Mills, A. (2010) The Role of the Third Sector in Work with Offenders: The Perceptions of Criminal Justice and Third Sector Stakeholders. Third Sector Research Centre Paper 34, [accessed 28/10/13].Google Scholar
  37. Ministry of Justice (2008) Working with the Third Sector to Reduce Re-offending: Securing Effective Partnerships 2008–2011, London: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  38. Ministry of Justice (2010) Integrated Offender Management, Key Principals, London: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  39. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation; A Strategy for Reform, [accessed 29/10/13].Google Scholar
  40. Ministry of Justice (2013b) Justice Data Lab, [accessed 21/10/13].Google Scholar
  41. Ministry of Justice (2013c) Principles of Competition, Scholar
  42. Ministry of Justice (2014) Target Operating Model 3,, [accessed 21/07/14].Google Scholar
  43. Nacro (2011) Response to Punishment and Reform: Effective Probation Services, [accessed 25/09/13].Google Scholar
  44. NOMS (2012) NOMS Commissioning Intentions for 2013–14: Negotiation Document,–14-oct12.pdf [accessed 21/10/13].Google Scholar
  45. O’Connor, T. and Bogue, B. (2010) Collaborating with the Community, Trained Volunteers and Faith Traditions; Building Social Capacity and Making Meaning to Support Desistence, in: McNeill, F., Rayner, P. and Trotter, C. (eds) Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice, Collumpton: Willan Publishing: 301–322.Google Scholar
  46. Pollard, Fran (2013) How has Entering Payment by Results Made Catch 22 Better Able to Understand and Respond to ‘Risk’ in the Public Service Market?, NCVO blog: [accessed 08/05/14].Google Scholar
  47. Prison Reform Trust (2013a) Prison: The Facts–Bromley Briefings Summer 2013, [accessed 25/09/13].Google Scholar
  48. Prison Reform Trust (2014) Why Focus on Reducing Women’s Imprisonment, London: PRT, available at: Scholar
  49. RECOOP (2014) RECOOP: Home, [accessed 25/07/14].Google Scholar
  50. Rees, R., Taylor, R. and Damm, C. (2013) Does Sector Matter? Understanding the Experiences of Providers in the Work Programme, Third Sector Research Centre Working Paper 92, [accessed 29/10/13].Google Scholar
  51. Sanderson, N. and Gordon, J. (2002) Prison Service Policy on Voluntary and Community Sector Partnerships, in: Bryans, S., Martin, C. and Walker, R. (eds) Prisons and the Voluntary Sector: A Bridge into the Community, Winchester: Waterside Press: 74–81.Google Scholar
  52. Shapland, J., Robinson, G. and Sorsby, A. (2011) Restorative Justice in Practice, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Social Finance (2011) Social Impact Bonds: The One Service. One Year on, [accessed 23/10/13].Google Scholar
  54. St Giles Trust (2012) The SOS Project, [accessed 25/07/14].Google Scholar
  55. Sviensson, K. P. (2012) Runnymede Perspectives: Criminal Justice v Racial Justice. Minority Ethnic Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System, pdf [accessed 25/03/13].Google Scholar
  56. Together Women Project (2013) The TWP Gender-Specific Mentoring Toolkit, [accessed 25/09/13].Google Scholar
  57. Transitions to Adulthood (2010)[accessed 25/07/14].
  58. User Voice (2014) London Probation Community Council, [accessed 25/07/14].Google Scholar
  59. Ward, T. and Maruna, S. (2007) Rehabilitation, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Ware, P. (2013) Very Small, Very Quiet, a Whisper–Black and Minority Ethnic Groups: Voice and Influence. Third Sector Research Centre Briefing Paper 103, [accessed 13/08/13].Google Scholar
  61. Wilson, R. J., McWhinnie, A., Picheca, K., Prinzo, M. and Cortoni, F. (2007) Circles of Support and Accountability: Engaging Community Volunteers in the Management of High-Risk Sexual Offenders, The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 46 (1): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wolfenden, Lord (1978) The Future of Voluntary Organisations, Report of the Wolfendon Committee, London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  63. Women in Prison (2013) State of the Estate: Women in Prison’s Report on the Women’s Custodial Estate 2011–12, [accessed 25/09/13].Google Scholar
  64. Wong, K., O’Keeffe, C., Meadows, L., Davidson, J., Bird, H., Wilkinson, K. and Senior, P. (2012) Increasing the Voluntary and Community Sector’s Involvement in Integrated Offender Management, [accessed 28/10/13].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Clive Martin, Lesley Frazer, Ellie Cumbo, Clare Hayes and Katie O’Donoghue 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clive Martin
  • Lesley Frazer
  • Ellie Cumbo
  • Clare Hayes
  • Katie O’Donoghue

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations