Identity Politics and Social Movements
Despite the fact that there is much overlap in their empirical focus, analytical perspectives on social movements have remained separate to normative perspectives in the field of ‘identity politics’. The women’s movement, black power and gay and lesbian movements, among others, that developed in the late 1960s and 1970s, challenged the universal conceptions of citizenship of liberal democracies (Massoumi and Meer, 2014). These movements were among others of an era — like the peace and environmental movements — that no longer fit with the class-based identification of previous popular movements (Melucci, 1989). While there is expansive literature on identity politics, there is often an imprecision to what people mean by the term. Various meanings are implied, ranging from a claim to specific group membership, cultural defence or the ‘politics of recognition’. The term is sometimes used as a derogatory label to describe fragmentation and displacement of ‘real’ social change in the form of class struggle.
KeywordsSocial Movement Collective Identity Muslim Woman Identity Politics Political Struggle
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