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Eco-Efficiency and Eco-Design — A First Step toward Sustainable Performance

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Abstract

Do you know how many liters of water are necessary to produce 1 kg of beefsteak? And a 250 ml glass of wine? And half a kilogram of bread? And a pack of 500 sheets of paper?

Keywords

Supply Chain Fair Trade Sulfur Oxide Water Footprint Life Cycle Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    A.Y. Hoekstra and A.K. Chapagain (2007), “Water Footprints of Nations: Water Use by People as a Function of their Consumption Pattern,” Water Resources Management, 21(1): 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See http://www.wbcsd.org/home.aspx, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  3. 3.
    Sources: Levi’s web sites: http://www.levistrauss.com/sustainability/planet/water, http://store.levi.com/waterless, http://www.levistrauss.com/sites/default/files/library document/2010/12/lsco-ceo-water-mandate-cop-2010.pdf, all accessed on October 10, 2012.
  4. 4.
    Source: LVMH Sustainable Development 2009 Report.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Source: WWF-UK (2006), “Deeper Luxury,” available at http://www.wwf.org.uk/deeperluxury/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  6. 6.
    Source: http://www.institutoe.org.br/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  7. 7.
    Source: http://www.mobigreen.fr/ecoconduite_laposte.htm, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  8. 8.
    See C. Sempels and M. Vandercammen (2009), Oser le marketing durable: Concilier marketing et développement durable, Paris: Pearson, and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
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    Source: Unilever Sustainable Living Plan Progress Report 2011, p. 27.Google Scholar
  10. 10.-Source: LVMH Sustainable Development 2009 Report.Google Scholar
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    Source: https://www.lush.co.uk/content/view/783, accessed on October 30, 2012.
  12. 12.
    Source: http://www.plasticdisclosure.org/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Source: https://www.lush.co.uk/content/view/4092, accessed on October 31, 2012.
  15. 15.
    Source: https://www.lush.co.uk/content/view/783, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  16. 16.
    Source: https://www.lush.co.uk/content/view/5432, accessed on October 30, 2012.
  17. 17.
    Source: http://www.worksmart.org.uk/company/company. php?id=04162033&showShareholders, accessed on October 30, 2012.
  18. 18.
    Source: http://www.lighting.philips.com/main/lightcommu nity/trends/led/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  19. 19.
    Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    The initiative defines hazardous chemicals as follows: “Hazardous chemicals are those that show intrinsically hazardous properties (persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic (PBT); very persistent and very bio-accumulative (vPvB); carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic for reproduction (CMR); endocrine disruptors (ED); or equivalent concern), not just those that have been regulated or restricted in other regions.” Source: Joint Roadmap: Toward Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals, Draft for Consultation, November 15, 2011, available at http://www.roadmaptozero.com/, accessed October 6, 2012.
  21. 21.
    The interested reader on planned obsolescence is invited to watch the documentary “Ready to Discard” produced by the German-French television Arte.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planned_obsolescence for a precise explanation, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  23. 23.
    Based on a case proposed by the eco-calculator developed by the Bio Intelligence Service and Ademe, available at http://www.ecocalculateur.com/guide-eco-conception/fondamen taux-eco-conception/cycle-de-vie-du-produit, accessed on October 10, 2012.
  24. 24.
    This example is written based on the Ben & Jerry’s Social & Environment Assessment Report 2010, http://www.benjerry.com/company/sear-reports, accessed on July 11, 2013.
  25. 25.
    The FSC certification stands for paperboards that comes from forest that are managed for the protection of wildlife habitat, maintenance of biodiversity, avoidance of genetically modified tree species, protection of traditional and civil rights, among other criteria. See http://www.fsc.org/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  26. 26.
    Source: Ben & Jerry’s Social & Environment Assessment Report 2010.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    HIER is a consortium of 40 NGOs, see http://www.hier.nu/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  28. 28.
    This section is structured on several sources the most important being M.R.M Crul and J.C. Diehl (2006), “Design for Sustainability: A Practical Approach for Developing Economies,” report published by the UNEP and Delft University of Technology.Google Scholar
  29. J.E.M. Klostermann and A. Tukker (eds) (2010), Product Innovation and Eco-Efficiency: Twenty-Three Industry Efforts to Reach the Factor 4, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    See also WWF-UK (2012), Green Game-Changers, available at http://www.wwf.org.uk/what_we_do/working_with_ business/green_game_changers/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  31. 30.
    See http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/lca/lca.html, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  32. 31.
    See http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  33. 32.
    Sources: http://www.ademe.fr/internet/video/jt_tf1/streaming 2.asp; http://archives.lesechos.fr/archives/2005/LesEchos/19409-85-ECH.htm; both accessed on 10 October 2012.
  34. 33.
    Source: PUMA’s Environmental Profit and Loss Account for the year ended December 31, 2010.Google Scholar
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  36. 35.
    http://www.puma.com/news/introducing-the-puma-re-suedepumas-most-sustainable-shoe retrieved 11 July 2013.
  37. 36.
    See P. Pizelle, J. Hoffmann, M. Aubouy and C. Verchere (2013), L’Innovation par les usages, lulu.com.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Source: Adapted from G. Bascoul and J-M. Moutot (2009), Marketing et développement durable, Paris: Dunod.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    See C. Sempels and M. Vandercammen (2009), Oser le marketing durable: Concilier marketing et développement durable, Paris: Pearson.Google Scholar
  40. The reader will find a thorough discussion in the first part on motivational factors structured on egocentric, pro-social and biospheric values (see p. 23) and strategies for perceived-risk reduction related to eco-design (p. 33 and on).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Sources: http://guayaki.com, accessed on October 10, 2012
  42. B. Boyd, N. Henning, E. Reyna, D.E. Wang and M.D. Welch (2009), Hybrid Organizations: New Business Models for Environmental Leadership, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. 40.
    The Atlantic Forest had originally covered a large surface in Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay around the Capricornia Tropic. Less than 10 percent of the original surface remains nowadays (see http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/For%C3%AAt_atlantique). Not to be confused with the Amazon Forest, accessed on February 10, 2013.
  44. 41.
    Around 81,000 hectares.Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    C. Berneman, P. Lanoie, S. Plouffe and M-F. Vernier (2011), “Les retombées intangibles de l’éco-conception pour l’entreprise,” Actes du colloque “Réseau entreprise et développement durable,” Montréal, Octobre 20–22, 2011.Google Scholar
  46. 43. See, for example, D.L. Rainey (2006), Sustainable Business Development: Inventing the Future through Strategy, Innovation and Leadership, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. E.U. Von Weizsäcker, A.B. Hunter and L.H. Lovins (1997), Factor Four: Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use–A Report to the Club of Rome, London: Earthscan Publications; and Berneman et al., “Les retombées intangibles de l’éco-conception pour l’entreprise.”Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    Source: http://www.asknature.org/article/view/what_is_bio mimicry, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  49. 45.
    Source: http://biomimicry.net/about/biomimicry/case-exam ples/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  50. 46.-Source: http://biomimicry.net/about/biomimicry/case-exam ples/transportation/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  51. 47.
    Sources: http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_pawlyn_using_ nature_s_genius_in_architecture.html; http://www.wired. co.uk/news/archive/2012-02/22/biomimicry-in-architecture; both accessed on February 7, 2013.
  52. 48.
    Source: http://biomimicry.net/about/biomimicry/case-exam ples/architecture/, accessed on February 7, 2013.
  53. 49.
    WWF-UK (2011) Green Game-Changers: 50 Innovations to Inspire Business Transformation, p. 88, available at http://www.wwf.org.uk/what_we_do/working_with_business/green_game_changers/, accessed on February 6, 2013.
  54. 50.
  55. 51.
    See http://www.dyesol.com/, accessed on February 10, 2013.

Copyright information

© Christophe Sempels and Jonas Hoffmann 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SKEMA Business SchoolFrance

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