Rebalancing towards a Sustainable Future: China’s Twelfth Five-Year Programme

  • Robert Ash
  • Robin Porter
  • Tim Summers


This chapter seeks to analyse and assess some of the major opportunities and challenges in China’s Twelfth Five-Year Programme for Social and Economic Development (hereafter 12FYP).1 The main economic thrust of the 12FYP is one of sustainable, balanced and innovative development; its principal social thrust is that the government should enhance its support for ‘livelihoods’ (minsheng) in order to create a ‘moderately well-off’ (xiaokang) society by 2020.2


Clean Development Mechanism Intellectual Property Right Circular Economy Sustainable Future Pearl River Delta Region 
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  1. 5.
    See Cindy Fan, ‘China’s Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006–2010): From “Getting Rich First” to “Common Prosperity”’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, vol. 47, no. 6 (2006), pp. 718–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    NBS statistics show that China’s merchandise trade with all three countries reached a record level in 2010. See NBS, Zhongguo tongji zhaiyao, 2011, p. 71.Google Scholar
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    Morgan Stanley, ‘European Corporates and China’s Megatransition’, Morgan Stanley Blue Paper, 29 October 2010, available at (accessed on 1 August 2011).Google Scholar
  4. 47.
    See Stephen S. Roach, ‘China’s 12th Five-Year Plan: Strategy vs. Tactics’, Morgan Stanley, April 2011, available at (accessed on 1 August 2011).Google Scholar
  5. 57.
    See Tim Summers, Yunnan — A Chinese Bridgehead to Asia: A case study of China’s political and economic relations with its neighbours (Chandos, 2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), ‘Heavy Duty: China’s Next Wave of Exports’, 2011.Google Scholar
  7. 95.
    Edward S. Steinfeld, Playing Our Game: Why China’s Rise Doesn’t Threaten the West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 161.Google Scholar

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© Robert Ash, Robin Porter and Tim Summers 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Ash
  • Robin Porter
  • Tim Summers

There are no affiliations available

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