Development in Kyrgyzstan: Failed State or Failed State-building?
Widely regarded in the 1990s as an ‘island of democracy’ in post-Soviet Central Asia (Anderson 1999), by 2003 the small mountainous republic of Kyrgyzstan found itself included alongside Côte d’ Ivoire, Kenya and Nigeria as ‘candidates for failure’ (Rotberg 2003, p. 20). Its candidature was seemingly confirmed two years later, in the aftermath of the March 2005 overthrow of Askar Akaev, when an International Crisis Group (ICG) report described Kyrgyzstan as ‘a faltering state’ and warned that without significant international support ‘there is a real risk that... the country will drift into irreversible criminality and permanent low-level violence’ (ICG 2005, p. ii).
KeywordsCivil Society Market Logic Kyrgyz Republic Paris Declaration Central Asian Republic
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abazov, R. (1998), Central Asian Republics’ Search For a ‘Model of Development’ , Central Asia in Transition, SRC Occasional Papers No. 61, Slavic Research Centre, Hokkaido University.Google Scholar
- Abazov, R. (2004), ‘Comrption in Kyrgyzstan: The cultural dimension’, Local Governance Brief, Spring, pp. 41–43.Google Scholar
- Alymbekov, M. (2012), ‘Kabar IAC: Combating corruption in Kyrgyzstan reached high ranks’, Kabar.kg, 4 December 2012. Available: http://kabar.kg/eng/ analytics/full/5706, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Anderson, J. (1999), Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia’ s Island of Democracy? The Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Brown, S. (2012), ‘Kyrgyzstan could be “New Afghanistan”, says President’, AlertNet, 11 December 2012. Available: http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/ kyrgyzstan-could-be-new-afghanistan-says-president, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Buxton, C. (2011), The Struggle for Civil Society in Central Asia, Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
- Cheterian, V (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan failing, and an arc of crisis’, Open Democracy, 15 Jim e 2010. Av ail abl e: htt p: / /www. opendem o er acy.n et /vi cken-diet eri an / kyrgyzstan-arc-of-crisis, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
- Daly, J.C.K. (2009), ‘The Manas disillusionment’, ISN Security Watch, 13 February 2009. Available: http://www.isn.ethz.cn/isn/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/ ?lng=enSdd=96478, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Denisenko, D. (2012), ‘V 2013 godu Kyrgyzstan provedet vtoruyu donorskuyu konferentsiyu’ [’ Kyrgyzstan to hold second donor conference in 2013’ ], Vechernii Bishkek, 18 October 2012. Available: http://www.vb.kg/doc/203179_ v_2013_gody_kyrgyzstan_provedet_vtor5ni_donorskyu_konferenciu.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Donors. kg. (n.d.), ‘Aid Harmonization’. Available: http://www.donors.kg/en/aid, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Economist (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan’ s interim government: Troubled transition’, The Economist, 13 May 2010. Available: http://www.economist.com/node/ 16116949, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Engvall, J. (2011), ‘Flirting with state failure: Power and politics in Kyrgyzstan since independence’, Silk Road Paper, July 2011.Google Scholar
- Harding, L. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan capital bloodied, looted and chaotic after overthrow of Bakiyev’, The Guardian, 8 April 2010. Available: http://www.guardian.co.iik/world/2010/apr/08/k\rrg3’ zstan-revolt-over-kurmanbek-bakiyev, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Heathershaw, J. (2007), ‘The Tulip Fades: “Revolution” and repercussions in Kyrgyzstan’, Perspective, Vol.17, No.2. Available: http://www.bu.edu/iscip/ voll7/heathershaw.html, accessed 4 June 2013.
- Holt, R.M. (1999), ‘Introduction’, in Holt, R.M. and Waugh, D.C. (eds), Civil Society in Central Asia, Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 3–26.Google Scholar
- HRW (2009), ‘Letter to President Bakiev regarding draft amendments to laws regulating nongovernmental organizations’, Human Rights Watch, 13 March 2009. Avail abl e: ht tp: /A vww.hr w. or g/n e ws / 2 00 9 /0 3 /13 /l et t er-pr es id ent-b aki e v-regarding-draft-ammendments-laws-regulating-nongovernmental, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
- ICG (2005), Kyrgyzstan: A Faltering State, International Crisis Group, Asia Report No. 109, 16 December 2005.Google Scholar
- ICG (2010), The Pogroms in Kyrgyzstan, International Crisis Group, Asia Report No. 193, 23 August 2010.Google Scholar
- Jailobaeva, K. (n.d.), NGOs in Kyrgyzstan, Social Research Centre, American University of Central Asia: Bishkek. Available: http://src.auca.kg/images/stories/ files/kanykei2_eng.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Karabayev, A. and Karimov, A. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan’ s death toll could be 10 times higher than reported’, Central Asia Online, 18 June 2010. Available: http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/main/2010/06/ 18/feature-03, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Kavalski, E. (2010), Stable Outside, Fragile Inside? Post-Soviet Statehood in Central Asia, Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Kimmage, D. (2005), ‘Kyrgyzstan: Follow the money — The Akaev investigation’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 4 May 2005. Available: http://www.rferl.org/ content/article/1058719.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
- King, L. and Hamm, P. (2005), Privatisation and State Capacity in Postcommunist Society, William Davidson Institute, Working Paper 806, December 2005.Google Scholar
- Marat, E. (2008a), ‘Kyrgyz NGOs reject government’ s criticism’, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol.5, No. 157, 15 August 2008. Available: http://www.jamestown.org/pro gr ams/edm/single/?tx_ttnews%5 Btt_news%5 D =3 3 89 4 & tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=166&no_cache=l, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Marat, E. (2008b), ‘Kyrgyz minister of energy sacked, but corruption continues’, Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, 26 November 2008. Available: http://www.cacianalyst.org/?q=node/4992, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Marat, E. (2008c), ‘Bakiyev anticipates a harsh winter and an energy crisis, further restricts free speech’, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol.5, No.237, 12 December 2008. Available: http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache= l&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=34267, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Marat, E. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan — Not a failing state’, Jamestown Foundation Blog, 23 April 2010. Available: http://jamestownfoundation.blogspot.com/2010/04/ k)!Tgyzstan-not-failing-state.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Nichol, J. (2009), Kyrgyzstan and the Status of the U.S. Manas Airbase: Context and Implications, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, R40564, 1 July 2009.Google Scholar
- Nichol, J. (2012), Kyrgyzstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 7–5700, 26 October 2012.Google Scholar
- NSCKR (2011), 20 Years of Independence in the Kyrgyz Republic: Figures and Facts, Bishkek: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic.Google Scholar
- Nygren, B. (2008), The Rebuilding of Greater Russia: Putin’ s Foreign Policy towards the CIS Countries, Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- OECD (2007), Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States & Situations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Development Co-operation Directorate. Available: http://www.oecd.org/dac/ incaf/38368714.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
- OECD (2008), Concepts and Dilemmas of State Building in Fragile Situations: From Fragility to Resilience, OECD-DAC Discussion Paper, April 2008, Organisation forGoogle Scholar
- Economie Cooperation and Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC). Available: http://www.oecd.org/dac/incaf/41100930.pdf, accessed 17 December 2013.
- Osmonalieva, A. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan goes to donors for post-unrest aid’, IWPR Reporting Central Asia 626, 23 August 2010. Available: http:// iwpr.net/report-news/kyTgyzstan-goes-donors-post-unrest-aid, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Pantucci, R. and Petersen, A. (2011), ‘China’ s slow surge in Kyrgyzstan: A view from the ground’, China Brief, Vol.11, No.21, 11 November 2011. Available: http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=l&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D= 38658, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Pomfret, R. (2007), ‘Lessons from Kyrgyzstan’ s WTO experience for Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan’, Asia Pacific Trade and Investment Review, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 27–46.Google Scholar
- Raga, D., Aga, G.A. and Silwal, A. (2012), ‘Remittances to developing countries will surpass $400 billion in 2012’, Migration and Development Brief 19, World Bank, 20 November 2012. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934–1288990760745/ MigrationDevelopmentBriefl9.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Reuters (2013), ‘UPDATE 1-Hard-up Kyrgyzstan adopts $13 bin growth plan’, Reuters, 14 January 2013. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/14/kyrgyzstan-gdp-idUSL6N0AJ37120130114, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Roston, A. (2006), ‘A crooked alliance in the war on terror?’ NBCNews.com, 30 October 2006. Available: http://www.ribcnews.com/id/15448018, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Rotberg, R.I. (2003), ‘Failed states, collapsed states, weak states: Causes and indicators’, in Rotberg, Robert I. (ed.), When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
- Shishkaraeva, E. (ed.) (2006), Review of the History of Establishment and Development of the NGO Sector in the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek: Association of Civil Society Support Centers/Soros Foundation Kyrgyzstan. Available: http://src.auca.kg/images/stories/files/monographyl_eng.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
- Sieff, M. (2011), ‘Aid to Kyrgyzstan would bring positive return on investment’, Central Asia Newswire, 23 February 2011. Available: http://www.universalnewswires.com/centralasia/viewstory.aspx?id=3352, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Sultanov, A. (2012), ‘Kyrgyzstan NGOs to play greater role’, Central Asia Online, 26 July 2012. Available: http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/ caii/newsbriefs/2012/07/26/newsbrief-02, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Taft, P. (2012), ‘Most-improved for 2012: Kyrgyzstan’, The Failed States Index, 18 June 2012. Available: http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=node/237, accessed 4 June 2013.
- Tynan, D. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan: US congressional committee to probe Manas deals’, Eurasianet, 13 April 2010. Available: http://www.eurasianet.org/ departments/insightb/articles/eav041410.shtml, accessed 5 June 2013.
- US Embassy Bishkek (2012), Recent U.S. Contributions to the Kyrgyz Government and Economy, Embassy of the United States Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, 30 November 2012. Available: http://bishkek.usembassy.gov/tc_recent_contributions.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Werker, E. (2012), “The political economy of bilateral foreign aid’, Working Paper 13–026, September 5, Harvard Business School. Available: http://www.hbs.edu/ f aculty/Publication%20Files/ 13–026_8eed3dbc-ee5c-4c 14-b26e-b6a844a20e44. pdf, accessed 11 June 2014.
- Wesley, M. (2008), ‘The state of the art on the art of Statebuilding’, Global Governance, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 369–385.Google Scholar
- Wilkinson, C. (2009), Interpreting Security: Grounding the Copenhagen School in Kyrgyzstan, PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.Google Scholar
- World Bank (1996), From Plan to Market, World Development Report 1996, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- World Bank (2011), Joint Country Assistance Strategy 2007–2010: Progress and Lessons, World Bank. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/KYRGYZEXTN/Resources/305 760–1310568077693/4 Joint_Country_ Assistance_Strategy_20072010_Progress_And_Lessons_Eng.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
- World Bank (2012), ‘World Bank in the Kyrgyz Republic: Twenty years of strong partnership’, World Bank Press Release, 18 September 2012. Available: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2012/09/18/ world-bank-in-the-kyrgyz-republic-20-years-of-strong-partnership, accessed 5 June 2013.
- Zb.ukov, S. (2001), ‘Central Asia: Development under conditions of globalization’, G lob a l Eco n o m ic R eview, Vol.30, No.2, pp. 3–24.Google Scholar
- Zisk Marten, K. (2002), ‘Small steps for US security interests in Kyrgyzstan’, PONARS Policy Memo 264, October 2002. Available: http://csis.org/files/media/ csis/pubs/pm_0264.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.