Development in Kyrgyzstan: Failed State or Failed State-building?

  • Cai Wilkinson
Part of the Rethinking International Development Series book series (RID)

Abstract

Widely regarded in the 1990s as an ‘island of democracy’ in post-Soviet Central Asia (Anderson 1999), by 2003 the small mountainous republic of Kyrgyzstan found itself included alongside Côte d’ Ivoire, Kenya and Nigeria as ‘candidates for failure’ (Rotberg 2003, p. 20). Its candidature was seemingly confirmed two years later, in the aftermath of the March 2005 overthrow of Askar Akaev, when an International Crisis Group (ICG) report described Kyrgyzstan as ‘a faltering state’ and warned that without significant international support ‘there is a real risk that... the country will drift into irreversible criminality and permanent low-level violence’ (ICG 2005, p. ii).

References

  1. Abazov, R. (1998), Central Asian Republics’ Search For a ‘Model of Development’ , Central Asia in Transition, SRC Occasional Papers No. 61, Slavic Research Centre, Hokkaido University.Google Scholar
  2. Abazov, R. (1999), ‘Policy of economic transition in Kyrgyzstan’, Central Asian Survey, Vol.18, No.2, pp. 197–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abazov, R. (2004), ‘Comrption in Kyrgyzstan: The cultural dimension’, Local Governance Brief, Spring, pp. 41–43.Google Scholar
  4. Alymbekov, M. (2012), ‘Kabar IAC: Combating corruption in Kyrgyzstan reached high ranks’, Kabar.kg, 4 December 2012. Available: http://kabar.kg/eng/ analytics/full/5706, accessed 5 June 2013.
  5. Anderson, J. (1999), Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia’ s Island of Democracy? The Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Aron, L. (2006), ‘The “Mystery” of the Soviet collapse’, journal of Democracy, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brill Olcott, M. (1992), ‘Central Asia’ s catapult to independence’, Foreign Affairs, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 108–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, S. (2012), ‘Kyrgyzstan could be “New Afghanistan”, says President’, AlertNet, 11 December 2012. Available: http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/ kyrgyzstan-could-be-new-afghanistan-says-president, accessed 5 June 2013.
  9. Bunce, V (1999), “The political economy of post socialism’, Slavic Review, Vol.58, No.4, pp. 756–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buxton, C. (2011), The Struggle for Civil Society in Central Asia, Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  11. Carothers, T. (2002), “The end of the transition paradigm’, Journal of Democracy, Vol.13, No. 1, pp. 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carothers, T. (2003), ‘Promoting democracy and fighting terror’, Foreign Affairs, Vol.82, pp. 84–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheterian, V (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan failing, and an arc of crisis’, Open Democracy, 15 Jim e 2010. Av ail abl e: htt p: / /www. opendem o er acy.n et /vi cken-diet eri an / kyrgyzstan-arc-of-crisis, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
  14. Collins, K. (2002), ‘Clans, pacts and politics in Central Asia’, Journal of Democracy, Vol.13, No.3, pp. 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daly, J.C.K. (2009), ‘The Manas disillusionment’, ISN Security Watch, 13 February 2009. Available: http://www.isn.ethz.cn/isn/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/ ?lng=enSdd=96478, accessed 5 June 2013.
  16. Denisenko, D. (2012), ‘V 2013 godu Kyrgyzstan provedet vtoruyu donorskuyu konferentsiyu’ [’ Kyrgyzstan to hold second donor conference in 2013’ ], Vechernii Bishkek, 18 October 2012. Available: http://www.vb.kg/doc/203179_ v_2013_gody_kyrgyzstan_provedet_vtor5ni_donorskyu_konferenciu.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
  17. Donors. kg. (n.d.), ‘Aid Harmonization’. Available: http://www.donors.kg/en/aid, accessed 5 June 2013.
  18. Economist (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan’ s interim government: Troubled transition’, The Economist, 13 May 2010. Available: http://www.economist.com/node/ 16116949, accessed 5 June 2013.
  19. Edwards, M. (2003), “The new great game and the new great gamers: Disciples of Kipling and Mackinder’, Central Asian Survey, Vol.22, No. 1, pp. 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Engvall, J. (2011), ‘Flirting with state failure: Power and politics in Kyrgyzstan since independence’, Silk Road Paper, July 2011.Google Scholar
  21. Fund for Peace (2012), The Failed States Index 2012, Washington, DC: The Fund for Peace. Available: http://wwwioreignpolicy.com/failed_states_index_2012_ interactive, accessed 4 June 2013.Google Scholar
  22. Harding, L. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan capital bloodied, looted and chaotic after overthrow of Bakiyev’, The Guardian, 8 April 2010. Available: http://www.guardian.co.iik/world/2010/apr/08/k\rrg3’ zstan-revolt-over-kurmanbek-bakiyev, accessed 5 June 2013.
  23. Heathershaw, J. (2007), ‘The Tulip Fades: “Revolution” and repercussions in Kyrgyzstan’, Perspective, Vol.17, No.2. Available: http://www.bu.edu/iscip/ voll7/heathershaw.html, accessed 4 June 2013.
  24. Heathershaw, J. and Megoran, N. (2011), ‘Contesting danger: A new agenda for policy and scholarship on Central Asia’, International Affairs, Vol.87, No.3, pp. 589–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hettne, B. (1994), “The political economy of post-communist development’, The European Journal of Development Research, Vol.6, No. 1, pp. 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holt, R.M. (1999), ‘Introduction’, in Holt, R.M. and Waugh, D.C. (eds), Civil Society in Central Asia, Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 3–26.Google Scholar
  27. HRW (2009), ‘Letter to President Bakiev regarding draft amendments to laws regulating nongovernmental organizations’, Human Rights Watch, 13 March 2009. Avail abl e: ht tp: /A vww.hr w. or g/n e ws / 2 00 9 /0 3 /13 /l et t er-pr es id ent-b aki e v-regarding-draft-ammendments-laws-regulating-nongovernmental, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
  28. Hyman, A. (1993), ‘Moving out of Moscow’ s orbit: The outlook for Central Asia’, International Affairs, Vol.69, No.2, pp. 288–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ICG (2005), Kyrgyzstan: A Faltering State, International Crisis Group, Asia Report No. 109, 16 December 2005.Google Scholar
  30. ICG (2010), The Pogroms in Kyrgyzstan, International Crisis Group, Asia Report No. 193, 23 August 2010.Google Scholar
  31. Jailobaeva, K. (n.d.), NGOs in Kyrgyzstan, Social Research Centre, American University of Central Asia: Bishkek. Available: http://src.auca.kg/images/stories/ files/kanykei2_eng.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
  32. Jailobaeva, K. (2008), All the Truth about NGOs Funding in Kyrgyzstan: Numbers and Facts, Social Research Centre, American University of Central Asia: Bishkek. Available: http://src.auca.kg/index.php?option=com_content&task= viewSdd=419&Itemid=82&lang=en, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
  33. Karabayev, A. and Karimov, A. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan’ s death toll could be 10 times higher than reported’, Central Asia Online, 18 June 2010. Available: http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/main/2010/06/ 18/feature-03, accessed 5 June 2013.
  34. Kavalski, E. (2010), Stable Outside, Fragile Inside? Post-Soviet Statehood in Central Asia, Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  35. Kimmage, D. (2005), ‘Kyrgyzstan: Follow the money — The Akaev investigation’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 4 May 2005. Available: http://www.rferl.org/ content/article/1058719.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
  36. King, L. and Hamm, P. (2005), Privatisation and State Capacity in Postcommunist Society, William Davidson Institute, Working Paper 806, December 2005.Google Scholar
  37. Kuehnast, K. and Dudwick, N. (2004), Better a Hundred Friends than a Hundred Rubles? Social Networks in Transition — The Kyrgyz Republic, Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuzio, T. (2001), ‘Transition in post-communist states: Triple or quadruple transition?’ Politics, Vol.21, No.3, pp. 168–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis, D. and Opoku-Mensah, P. (2006), ‘Moving forward research Agenda on international NGOs: Theory, agency and context’, Journal of International Development, Vol.18, No.5, pp. 665–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ma, S. (1998), ‘Third world studies, development studies and post-communist studies: Definitions, distance and dynamism’, Third World Quarterly, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marat, E. (2008a), ‘Kyrgyz NGOs reject government’ s criticism’, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol.5, No. 157, 15 August 2008. Available: http://www.jamestown.org/pro gr ams/edm/single/?tx_ttnews%5 Btt_news%5 D =3 3 89 4 & tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=166&no_cache=l, accessed 5 June 2013.
  42. Marat, E. (2008b), ‘Kyrgyz minister of energy sacked, but corruption continues’, Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, 26 November 2008. Available: http://www.cacianalyst.org/?q=node/4992, accessed 5 June 2013.
  43. Marat, E. (2008c), ‘Bakiyev anticipates a harsh winter and an energy crisis, further restricts free speech’, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol.5, No.237, 12 December 2008. Available: http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache= l&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=34267, accessed 5 June 2013.
  44. Marat, E. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan — Not a failing state’, Jamestown Foundation Blog, 23 April 2010. Available: http://jamestownfoundation.blogspot.com/2010/04/ k)!Tgyzstan-not-failing-state.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
  45. Marquette, H. and Beswick, D. (2011),’ statebuilding, security and development: Statebuilding as a new development paradigm?’ Third World Quarterly, Vol.32, No.10, pp. 1703–1714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mcloughlin, C. (2012), Topic Guide on Fragile States, Birmingham, UK: Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, University of Birmingham. Available: www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/CON86.pdf, accessed 18 December 2013.Google Scholar
  47. Milliken, J. and Krause, K. (2002), ‘State failure, state collapse, and state reconstruction: Concepts, lessons and strategies’, Development and Change, Vol.33, No.5, pp. 753–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nichol, J. (2009), Kyrgyzstan and the Status of the U.S. Manas Airbase: Context and Implications, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, R40564, 1 July 2009.Google Scholar
  49. Nichol, J. (2012), Kyrgyzstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 7–5700, 26 October 2012.Google Scholar
  50. NSCKR (2011), 20 Years of Independence in the Kyrgyz Republic: Figures and Facts, Bishkek: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic.Google Scholar
  51. Nygren, B. (2008), The Rebuilding of Greater Russia: Putin’ s Foreign Policy towards the CIS Countries, Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. OECD (2007), Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States & Situations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Development Co-operation Directorate. Available: http://www.oecd.org/dac/ incaf/38368714.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
  53. OECD (2008), Concepts and Dilemmas of State Building in Fragile Situations: From Fragility to Resilience, OECD-DAC Discussion Paper, April 2008, Organisation forGoogle Scholar
  54. Economie Cooperation and Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC). Available: http://www.oecd.org/dac/incaf/41100930.pdf, accessed 17 December 2013.
  55. Osmonalieva, A. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan goes to donors for post-unrest aid’, IWPR Reporting Central Asia 626, 23 August 2010. Available: http:// iwpr.net/report-news/kyTgyzstan-goes-donors-post-unrest-aid, accessed 5 June 2013.
  56. Pantucci, R. and Petersen, A. (2011), ‘China’ s slow surge in Kyrgyzstan: A view from the ground’, China Brief, Vol.11, No.21, 11 November 2011. Available: http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=l&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D= 38658, accessed 5 June 2013.
  57. Petric, B. (2005), ‘Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan or the birth of a globalized protectorate’, Central Asian Survey, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pomfret, R. (2007), ‘Lessons from Kyrgyzstan’ s WTO experience for Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan’, Asia Pacific Trade and Investment Review, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 27–46.Google Scholar
  59. Radnitz, S. (2005), ‘Networks, localism and mobilization in Aksy, Kyrgyzstan’, Central Asian Survey, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 405–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Raga, D., Aga, G.A. and Silwal, A. (2012), ‘Remittances to developing countries will surpass $400 billion in 2012’, Migration and Development Brief 19, World Bank, 20 November 2012. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934–1288990760745/ MigrationDevelopmentBriefl9.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
  61. Reuters (2013), ‘UPDATE 1-Hard-up Kyrgyzstan adopts $13 bin growth plan’, Reuters, 14 January 2013. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/14/kyrgyzstan-gdp-idUSL6N0AJ37120130114, accessed 5 June 2013.
  62. Roston, A. (2006), ‘A crooked alliance in the war on terror?’ NBCNews.com, 30 October 2006. Available: http://www.ribcnews.com/id/15448018, accessed 5 June 2013.
  63. Rotberg, R.I. (2003), ‘Failed states, collapsed states, weak states: Causes and indicators’, in Rotberg, Robert I. (ed.), When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  64. Roy, O. (2005), “The predicament of “Civil Society” in Central Asia and the “Greater Middle East” ‘, International Affairs, Vol.81, No.5, pp. 1001–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shishkaraeva, E. (ed.) (2006), Review of the History of Establishment and Development of the NGO Sector in the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek: Association of Civil Society Support Centers/Soros Foundation Kyrgyzstan. Available: http://src.auca.kg/images/stories/files/monographyl_eng.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.Google Scholar
  66. Sieff, M. (2011), ‘Aid to Kyrgyzstan would bring positive return on investment’, Central Asia Newswire, 23 February 2011. Available: http://www.universalnewswires.com/centralasia/viewstory.aspx?id=3352, accessed 5 June 2013.
  67. Sultanov, A. (2012), ‘Kyrgyzstan NGOs to play greater role’, Central Asia Online, 26 July 2012. Available: http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/ caii/newsbriefs/2012/07/26/newsbrief-02, accessed 5 June 2013.
  68. Taft, P. (2012), ‘Most-improved for 2012: Kyrgyzstan’, The Failed States Index, 18 June 2012. Available: http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=node/237, accessed 4 June 2013.
  69. Tishkov, V. (1995), ‘Don’ t kill me, I’ m a Kyrgyz!: An anthropological analysis of violence in the Osh ethnic conflict’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol.32, No.2, pp. 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tynan, D. (2010), ‘Kyrgyzstan: US congressional committee to probe Manas deals’, Eurasianet, 13 April 2010. Available: http://www.eurasianet.org/ departments/insightb/articles/eav041410.shtml, accessed 5 June 2013.
  71. US Embassy Bishkek (2012), Recent U.S. Contributions to the Kyrgyz Government and Economy, Embassy of the United States Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, 30 November 2012. Available: http://bishkek.usembassy.gov/tc_recent_contributions.html, accessed 5 June 2013.
  72. Werker, E. (2012), “The political economy of bilateral foreign aid’, Working Paper 13–026, September 5, Harvard Business School. Available: http://www.hbs.edu/ f aculty/Publication%20Files/ 13–026_8eed3dbc-ee5c-4c 14-b26e-b6a844a20e44. pdf, accessed 11 June 2014.
  73. Wesley, M. (2008), ‘The state of the art on the art of Statebuilding’, Global Governance, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 369–385.Google Scholar
  74. Wilkinson, C. (2009), Interpreting Security: Grounding the Copenhagen School in Kyrgyzstan, PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.Google Scholar
  75. World Bank (1996), From Plan to Market, World Development Report 1996, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. World Bank (2011), Joint Country Assistance Strategy 2007–2010: Progress and Lessons, World Bank. Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/KYRGYZEXTN/Resources/305 760–1310568077693/4 Joint_Country_ Assistance_Strategy_20072010_Progress_And_Lessons_Eng.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.
  77. World Bank (2012), ‘World Bank in the Kyrgyz Republic: Twenty years of strong partnership’, World Bank Press Release, 18 September 2012. Available: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2012/09/18/ world-bank-in-the-kyrgyz-republic-20-years-of-strong-partnership, accessed 5 June 2013.
  78. Zb.ukov, S. (2001), ‘Central Asia: Development under conditions of globalization’, G lob a l Eco n o m ic R eview, Vol.30, No.2, pp. 3–24.Google Scholar
  79. Zisk Marten, K. (2002), ‘Small steps for US security interests in Kyrgyzstan’, PONARS Policy Memo 264, October 2002. Available: http://csis.org/files/media/ csis/pubs/pm_0264.pdf, accessed 5 June 2013.

Copyright information

© Cai Wilkinson 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cai Wilkinson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations