Advertisement

Encouraging Generosity: The Practice and Organization of Fund-Raising across Nations

  • Beth Breeze
  • Wendy Scaife

Abstract

The international collaboration in this book creates a unique opportunity to establish, discuss and draw conclusions about fund-raising across nations. Based on the 26-country dataset provided by the authors in this volume, this chapter describes and analyzes for the first time the diverse fund-raising environments around the world that are shaped by different historical, cultural, social, religious, political and economic conditions. It begins by noting the lack of research on fund-raisers and fund-raising in contrast to the extensive studies undertaken of donors and argues that the demand side of charitable transactions is worthy of greater attention if a complete and dynamic understanding of giving is to be achieved. It then presents and discusses key themes related to fund-raising in the countries represented in this book. A typology is suggested to impose order on the huge variety of fund-raising approaches and stages of development in the organization of this activity around the world; this typology also strengthens understanding of the connection between asking and giving. After offering suggestions for future research in this area of study, the chapter ends by noting that despite global differences in the evolution of fund-raising as a profession and the diversity of current contexts, fund-raisers in every country face shared challenges that would benefit from greater exchange of knowledge and best practices.

Keywords

Direct Mail Registered Charity Capital Campaign Charity Navigator Canada Revenue Agency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, B.A., & Schmitz, M.D. (1978). The ‘crowding out’ effect of government transfers on private charitable contributions. Public Choice, 33(1), pp. 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ACOSS (2005). Giving Australia: Research on Philanthropy in Australia. Summary of Findings. Retrieved October 24, from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/statistics/eprint/61389/.Google Scholar
  3. Andreoni, J. (1988). Privately provided public goods in a large economy: The limits of altruism. Journal of Public Economics, 35(1), pp. 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreoni, J. (1998). Towards a theory of charitable fundraising. Journal of Political Economy, 106(6), pp. 1186–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreoni, J., & Payne, A. (2011). Is crowding out due entirely to fundraising? Evidence from a panel of charities. Journal of Public Economics, 95(5), pp. 334–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelov, G. (2011). What happened to donations in 2010?. Politiki, 9, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  7. Ayer, S., Hall, M., & Vodarek, L. (2009). Perspectives on Fundraising: What Charities Report to the Canada Revenue Agency. Toronto, Canada: Imagine Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, M. (1999). Fundraising in Brazil: The major implications for civil society organizations and international nonprofit organizations. Development in Practice, 9(1–2), pp. 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishop, M., & Green, M. (2008). Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich can Save the World. New York: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
  10. Blackbaud (2011). 2011 State of The Nonprofit Industry Executive Overview. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from https://events.blackbaud.com.au/document.doc?id=18.Google Scholar
  11. Blackbaud (2012). 2012 State of The Nonprofit Industry Survey Summary Report. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from https://www.blackbaud.com/files/resources/soni_final_2012.pdf.Google Scholar
  12. Breeze, B. (2012). The Coutts Million Pound Donors Report. London, UK: Coutts and Co.Google Scholar
  13. Cagney, P., & Ross, B. (2013). Global Fundraising: How the World Is Changing the Rules of Philanthropy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Canada Help (2013). Homepage. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.canadahelp.org.Google Scholar
  15. Cook, W.B. (1997). Fund raising and the college presidency in an era of uncertainty: From 1975 to the present. Journal of Higher Education, 68(1), pp. 53–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornes, R., & Sandler, T. (1996). The Theory of Externalities, Public Goods and Club Goods. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cutlip, S.M. (1965). Fundraising in the United States: Its Role in America’s Philanthropy. New Brunswick, UK: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. European Commission (2012). Interim Report on Progress in Bulgaria under the Co-operation and Verification Mechanism. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ec.europa.eu/cvm/docs/com_2012_57_en.pdf.Google Scholar
  19. France Générosités & CerPhi (2012). Evolution de la générosité en France [Evolution of Giving in France]. Paris, France: CerPhi.Google Scholar
  20. Gasman, M. (2004). Rhetoric vs. reality: The fundraising messages of the United Negro College Fund in the immediate aftermath of the Brown decision. History of Education Quarterly, 44(1), pp. 70–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giving USA (2012). The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year2006. New York: Giving USA Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Gordon, B. (1998). Bazaars and Fair Ladies: The History of the American Fundraising Fair. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gneezy, U., Keenan, E.A., & Gneezy, A. (2014). Avoiding overhead aversion in charity. Science, 346(6209).Google Scholar
  24. Hong Kong SAR Government (2012). Hong Kong: The Facts, Social Welfare. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from http://www.gov.hk/en/abouthk/lactsheets/docs/social_welfare.pdl.Google Scholar
  25. Hristova, D. (2011). SMS Charity?. Politiki, 3, pp. 5–22.Google Scholar
  26. Ingenhoft, D., & Rölling, M. (2009). The potential of web sites as a relationship building tool for charitable rundraising NPOs’. Public Relations Review, 35(1), pp. 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Israel Gives (2013). Homepage. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from http://www.israelgives.org/.Google Scholar
  28. Lawrence, S., & Mukai, R. (2011). Foundation Growth and Giving Estimates. New York: Foundation Center.Google Scholar
  29. Michon, R., & Tandon, A. (2012). Emerging Philanthropy Markets. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 17(4), pp. 352–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mullin, R. (2007). Two thousand years of disreputable history. In J. Mordaunt & R. Paton (Eds.), Thoughtful Fundraising: Concepts, Issues and Perspectives (pp. 9–18). Oxford, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Murray, S. (1987). Building Troyes Cathedral: The Late Gothic Campaigns. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  32. NCVO/CAF (2012). UK Giving Survey. London, UK: NCVO.Google Scholar
  33. Neumayr, M., & Schober, C. (2012). Giving in Austria: Factors Influencing Giving Behavior of the Austrian Population (Projektbericht). Wien: Wirtschaftsuniversitat Wien.Google Scholar
  34. National Philanthropic Trust (2012). Philanthropy Timeline. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from http://www.nptrust.org/history-ol-giving/timeline/1600s/.Google Scholar
  35. Onishi, T. (2007). Japanese fundraising: A comparative study of the United States and Japan. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 7(3), pp. 205–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ozdemir, Z., Altinkemer, K., De, P., & Ozcelik, Y. (2010). Donor-to-nonprofit online marketplace: An economic analysis of the effects on fund-raising. Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(2), pp. 213–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peacock, M. (2000). Charity ends with the lottery: It ain’t what you give, it’s the way that you give it. New Economy, 7(2), pp. 120–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. PIRAC (Public Interest Research and Advocacy Centre, Indonesia) (2002). Investing in Ourselves: Giving and Fundraising in Indonesia. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development BankGoogle Scholar
  39. Rose-Ackerman, S. (1986). Do government grants to charity reduce private donations. In S. Rose-Ackerman (Ed.), The Economics of Nonprofit Institutions (pp. 313–329). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Round-up Israel (2013). Homepage. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from http://www.round-up.org.il/.Google Scholar
  41. Royal National Lifeboat Institution (2013). RNLI History. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from http:/rnli.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/RNLIhistorydownloadablefactsheet.pdf.Google Scholar
  42. Sargeant, A. (2011). 2011 State of the Nonprofit Industry Executive Overview. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from https://events.blackbaud.com.au/document.doc?id=185.Google Scholar
  43. Sargeant, A., Hudson, J., & Wilson, S. (2012). Donor complaints about fundraising: What are they and why should we care?. Voluntas, 23, pp. 791–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sargeant, A., & Jay, E. (2004). Fundraising Management: Analysis, Planning and Practice. London, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shier, M., & Handy, F. (2012). Understanding online donor behavior: The role of donor characteristics, perceptions of the internet, website and program, and influence from social networks. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 27(3), pp. 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steele, V., & Elder, S. (2000). Becoming a fundraiser: The Principles and Practice of Library Development. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.Google Scholar
  47. Tedham, A. (2012). Charitable Giving, Fundraising, and Faith-Based Organizations: Islamic Relief World Wide and World Vision International — A Comparison. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://graduateinstitute.ch/files/live/sites/iheid/files/sites/international_history_politics/shared/working_papers/WPIH_11_Tedham.pdf.Google Scholar
  48. Tennant, M. (2013). Fun and fundraising: The selling of charity in New Zealand’s past. Social History, 38(1), pp. 46–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. The Oxford English Dictionary (2013). Dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Thornton, J. (2006). Nonprofit fund-raising in competitive donor markets. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35(2), pp. 204–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tutu, D. (2010). You Have a Noble Profession (Conference Presentation April 13, 2010. Baltimore, MD and the 47th Association of Fundraising Professionals International Conference). Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://call2action.com/news/2010–04-16/you-have-noble-profession.Google Scholar
  52. United Way Worldwide (2013). Homepage. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://worldwide.unitedway.org/.Google Scholar
  53. VFI (2012). Persbericht Week van het Testament [Week of the Will]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: VFI.Google Scholar
  54. von Hippel, T. (2010). Nonprofit Organizations in Germany. In K.J. Hopt & T. von Hippel (Eds.), Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations (pp. 197–227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Weisbrod, B., & Dominguez, N. (1986). Demand for collective goods in private nonprofit markets: Can fundraising expenditures help overcome free-rider behavior?. Journal of Public Economics, 30(1), pp. 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Beth Breeze and Wendy Scaife 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beth Breeze
  • Wendy Scaife

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations