Skip to main content

Giving in Germany: Toward Systematic Information on a Fragmented Nonprofit Sector

  • Chapter
The Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy

Abstract

The historic development of the nonprofit sector in Germany can be traced from antiquity to after German reunification (for a more detailed German version of this history see Helmig & Boenigk, 2012, or for an extensive English version of more recent history, see Anheier & Seibel, 2001). Already in Greco-Roman antiquity (about 1400 BC-600 AC) educational and social foundations existed, and the first sport clubs and museums were established (Bolkestein, 1939; Diem, 1960; Pomian, 1988; Vieregg, 2008). However, these organizations were closely related to the religious beliefs and government of the era, thus serving to worship the gods and heroes and to display sacrificial offerings (Bolkestein, 1939; Helmig & Boenigk, 2012). The rise of Christianity changed this religious influence on nonprofit activities only to a small degree. Even though the newly founded ‘Diakonie’ based its activities on fraternity and helping those in need, the strong influence of government and church remained (Bauer, 1999). At the end of the 4th century, the religious nonprofit Diakonie was used as an instrument by the government to take care of the poor and avoid any uprisings or riots (Flierl, 1992).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Anheier, H.K., & Seibel, W. (2001). The Nonprofit Sector in Germany — Between State, Economy and Society. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, J.B. (1999). Armenpflege [Poor Relief]. In J.B. Bauer & M. Hutter (Eds.), Lexikon der Christlichen Antike (pp. 27–28). Stuttgart, Germany: Kröner.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bekkers R., & Wiepking, P. (2011). A literature review of empirical studies of philanthropy: Eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving. Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40(5), pp. 924–973.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bies, A.L. (2010). Evolution of nonprofit self-regulation in Europe. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39(6), pp. 1057–1086.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boenigk, S., & Helmig, B. (2013). Why do donors donate? Examining the effects of organizational identification and identity salience on the relationships among satisfaction, loyalty, and donation behavior. Journal of Service Research, 16(4), pp. 533–548.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bolkestein, H. (1939). Wohltätigkeit und Armenpflege im vorchristlichen Altertum. Ein Beitrag zum Problem ‘Moral und Gesellschaft’ [Charity and Poor Relief in before Christ Antiquity. A Contribution Addressing the Problem of ‘morality and society’]. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Oosthoek.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bundessteuerberaterkammer. (2013). Berufsstatistik [Job Statistics]. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.bstbk.de/export/sites/standard/de/ressourcen/Dokumente/01_bstbk/berufsstatistik/Berufsstatistik_2012.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bundesverband Deutscher Stiftungen (2011). Stiftungen in Zahlen 2011 [Foundations in Figures 2011]. Retrieved 2013, from http://www.stiftungenorg/filedmin/bvds/de/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/JahresPK_2012/Stiftungszahlen_2011_02.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bundesverband Deutscher Stiftungen (2013). Stiftungsreport 2013/14 [Foundation Report 2013/14]. Retrieved 2013, from http://www.stiftungen.org/fileadmin/bvds/de/Publikationen/StiftungsReport/StiftungsReport2013–14.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Capgemini Merrill Lynch (2010). World Wealth Report 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.de.capgemini.com/sites/default/files/resource/pdf/World_Wealth_Report_010.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Capgemini Merrill Lynch (2013). World Wealth Report 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.capgemini.com/sites/default/files/resource/pdf/wwr_2013_0.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deutscher Fundraising Verband (2013a). Über uns — Portrait [About Us — Portrait], Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.fundraisingverband.de/verband/ueberuns/portrait.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deutscher Fundraising Verband (2013b). Ethik und Transparenz — Transparenz [Ethics and Transparency — Transparency]. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.fundraisingverband.de/verband/ethische-grundsaetze/transparenz.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deutscher Spendenrat & GfK. (2013). Bilanz des Reifens 2013 [Record of Helping 2013]. Retrieved 2013, from http://www.spendenrat.de/download.php?f=9fedafe910992ce219fa31f8ac65654a.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diem, C. (1960). Weltgeschichte des Sports und der Leibeserziehung [World History of Sports and Physical Education]. Stuttgart, Germany: Cotta.

    Google Scholar 

  • Federal Ministry of Family, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (2013). Hauptbericht des Preiwilligensurveys 2009 [Main Report of the Volunteer Survey 2009]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from www.bmfsfj.de/RedaktionBMFSFJ/Broschuerenstelle/Pdf-Anlagen/3._20Freiwilligensurvey-Hauptbericht,property=pdf,bereich=bmfsfj,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Federal Ministry of Finance (2008). Monatsbericht des Bundesministerium für Finanzen — März 2008 [Monthly Report of the Federal Ministry of Finance — March 2008]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Monatsberichte/Publikationen_Migration/2008/03/000_a_mb_maerz.pdf?_blob=publicationFile&v=3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Federal Ministry of Finance (2013). Die wichtigsten Steuersätze im internationalen Vergleich 2012 [International Comparison of the Most Important Tax Rates 2012]. Retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Monatsberichte/Publikationen_Migration/2008/03/000_c_mb_maerz.pdf?_blob=publicationFile&v=3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Federal Ministry of Justice (2013a). §8 SGB IV: Geringfügige Beschäftigung und geringfügige selbständige Tätigkeit [Marginal Employment and Marginal Self-employed Work]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/sgb_4/_8.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Federal Ministry of Justice (2013b). §10b EStG: Steuerbegünstigte Zwecke [Tax Beneficial Causes]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/estg/_10b.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flierl, H. (1992). Freie und öffentliche Wohlfahrtspflege. Aufbau, Finanzierung, Geschichte, Verbände [Free and Public Welfare. Development, Financing, History, Federations]. Munich, Germany: Jehle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fritsch, S., Klose, M., Opfermann, R., Rosenski, N, Schwarz, N., Anheier, H.K., & Spengler N. (2011). Zivilgesellschaft in Zahlen. Abschlussbericht Modul 1 [Civil Society in Figures. Final Report Module 1]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.ziviz.info/fileadmin/download/zivilgesellschaft_in_zahlen_abschlussbericht_modul_1.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • German Central Institute for Social Issues (Ed.) (2011). Pressemitteilung — Für das Jahr 2011 zeichnet sich ein Spendenrückgang ab [Press Release — For the Year 2011 a Decrease in Donations Looms]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.dzi.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/DZI_PM_l9Dez2011.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • German Central Institute for Social Issues (Ed.) (2012). DZI Spenden-Almanach 2012 [DZI Donation-Almanac 2012]. Berlin, Germany: DZI Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • German Central Institute for Social Issues (Ed.) (2013a). Das DZI rät ab [The DZI Advises Against]. Retrieved, 2013, from http://www.dzi.de/spenderberatung/das-dzi-rat-ab/.

    Google Scholar 

  • German Central Institute for Social Issues (Ed.) (2013b). DZI Spendensiegel Leitlinien [DZI Donation Seal Guidelines]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.dzi.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/DZI-Spenden-Siegel-Leitlinien-2011.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • German Central Institute for Social Issues (Ed.) (2013c). DZI Spendensiegel Bulletin November 2012 [DZI Donation Seal Bulletin November 2012]. Retrieved 2013, from http://www.dzi.de/wp-content/pdfs_Spenderberatung/spenden-siegel-bulletin_12.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • GLS Bank (Ed.) (2013). GLS Bank: A Brief Portrait. Retrieved 2013, from https://www.gls.de/privatkunden/english-portrait/.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haibach, M. (2010). Großspenden in Deutschland: Wege zu mehr Philanthropie [Large Donations in Germany: Routes to More Philanthropy]. Retrieved June 28, 2013, from http://www.majorgivingsolutions.com/de/2011/03/31/studie-jetzt-verfugbar/.

    Google Scholar 

  • Helmig, B., & Boenigk, S. (2012). Nonprofit Management. Munich, Germany: Vahlen.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Helmig, B., Spraul, K., & Michalski, S. (2010). Organizational Forms and Development. In H. Anheier, R. List, & S. Toepler (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Civil Society (pp. 1115–1121). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krimmer, H., & Priemer, J. (2013). ZiviZ-Survey 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2013, from http://my.page2flip.de/1289164/1331587/1331588/pdf/ZIVIZSURVEY2012.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mews, M. (2013). To pay or not to pay — the role of monetary incentives in an optimal blood donation service bundle. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 18(3), pp. 192–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mews, M., & Boenigk, S. (2013). Does organizational reputation influence the willingness to donate blood? International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 10(1), pp. 49–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, M., & Simsa, R. (2013). Entwicklungsperspektiven des Nonprofit Sektors [Development Perspectives for the Nonprofit Sector]. In R. Simsa, M. Meyer, & C. Badelt (Eds.), Handbuch der Nonprofit-Organisation [Handbook of Nonprofit Organizations] (5th ed.) (pp. 509–524). Stuttgart, Germany: Schäffer-Poeschel.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nolte, I., & Boenigk, S. (2011). Public-nonprofit partnership performance in a disaster context: The case of Haiti. Public Administration, 89(3), pp. 1385–1402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • OECD (2013). Public Social Expenditures in OECD Countries. Retrieved June 18, 2013, from http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?datasetcode=SOCX_AGG.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (2013) Berichte nach §21 Transfusionsgesetz (TFG) [Reports from the §21 Transfusionact (TFG)]. Retrieved June 13, 2013, from http://www.pei.de/DE/infos/rneldepflichtige/rneldungblutprodukte-21-transfusionsgesetz/berichte/berichte-21tfg-node.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peters, F. (2013). Der Islam gehört nun offiziell zu Deutschland [Now Islam Officially Belongs to Germany]. Retrieved June 13, 2013, from http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article 117076904/Der-Islam-gehoert-nun-offiziell-zu-Deutschland.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pomian, K. (1988). Der Ursprung des Museums [The Origin of Museums]. Berlin: Klaus Wagenbach.

    Google Scholar 

  • Priemer, J., & Krimmer, H. (2011). Vorwort [Foreword]. In N. Spengler & J. Priemer (Eds.), Daten zur Zivilgesellschaft — Eine Bestandsaufnahme [Civil Society Data — An Inventory] (p. 5). Essen, Germany: Edition Stifterverband.

    Google Scholar 

  • Priller, E., & Schupp, J. (2011). Soziale und ökonomische Merkmale von Geld- und Blutspendern in Deutschland [Social and Economic Characteristics of Money and Blood Donors in Germany]. DIW Wochenbericht, 29, pp. 3–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Priller, E., & Zimmer, A. (2001). Der dritte Sektor: Wachstum und Wandel [The Third Sector: Growth and Transition]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/cps/rde/xbcr/SID-B2A3A6C8–7D84ECBE/bst/xcms_bst_dms_l7300_17301_2.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robbers, G. (2010). Religion and Law in Germany. Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenski, N. (2011). Indicating the Third Sector in the Statistical Business Register. In Federal Statistical Office (Ed.), Methods — Approaches — Developments (pp. 18–20). Wiesbaden, Germany: German Federal Statistical Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenski, N. (2012). Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Dritten Sektors [The Economic Importance of the Third Sector]. Wirtschaft und Statistik, 3, pp. 209–217.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salamon, L.M., & Anheier, H.K. (1998). Social Origins of Civil Society: Explaining the Nonprofit Sector Cross-Nationally. Voluntas, 9(3), pp. 213–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salamon, L.M., Sokolowski, S.W., & List, R. (2003). Global Civil Society — An Overview. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Centre for Civil Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • Socio-economic Panel (SOEP) (2011). Data for years 1984–2010. Doi: 10.5684/soep.v27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sommerfeld, J. (2009). Evaluierung von Auswirkungen des Gesetzes zur weiteren Stärkung des bürgerschaftlichen Engagements. Empirische Untersuchung der Entwicklungen im Regelungsbereich, insbesondere zum Spendenaufkommen [Evaluation of Effects of the Act on Further Strengthening Civic Engagement. Empirical Study on the Developments in Regulation, Especially Regarding Donations]. Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Zentralinstitut für soziale Fragen im Auftrag des Bundesministerium für Finanzen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sommerfeld, J., & Sommerfeld, R. (2010). Die Spender [The Donors]. In Deutsches Zentralinstitut für soziale Fragen (Ed.), Spendenbericht Deutschland 2010 (pp. 25–92). Berlin, Germany: Deutsches Zentralinstitut für soziale Fragen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Statista (2013). Anzahl der Mitglieder in Religionsgemeinschaften in Deutschland im Jahr 2012 [Amount of Members in Religious Communities in Germany in the Year of 2012]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://de.statista.com/download/MTM3NDIlNzMzMyMjMjkwMjYzIyMzNzAyOCMjMSMjeGxz/.

    Google Scholar 

  • TNS Infratest (2011) (Ed.). Deutscher Spendenmonitor 2011 [German Donation Monitor 2011]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.tns-infratest.com/presse/pdf/Presse/TNS_Infratest_Deutscher_Spendenmoni tor_2011.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • V & M Service GmbH (2011). Vereinsregister 2011 [Association/Clubs Registry 2011]. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.npo-info.de/vereinsstatistik/2011/.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vieregg, H.K. (2008). Geschichte des Museums. Eine Einführung [History of the Museum. An Introduction]. Munich, Germany: Fink.

    Google Scholar 

  • von Hippel, T. (2010). Nonprofit Organizations in Germany. In K.J. Hopt & T. von Hippel (Eds.), Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations (pp. 197–227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, G.G., Frick, J.R., & Schupp, J. (2007). The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) — Scope, Evolution and Enhancements. Schmollers Jahrbuch: Journal of Applied Social Science Studies, 227(1), pp. 139–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wex, T. (2004). Der Nonprofit-Sektor der Organisationsgesellschaft [The Nonprofit Sector of the Society of Organizations]. Wiesbaden, Germany: Gabler.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmer, A., Priller, E., & Anheier, H.K. (2013). Der Nonprofit-Sektor in Deutschland [The Nonprofit-Sector in Germany]. In R. Simsa, M. Meyer, & C. Badelt (Eds.), Handbuch der Nonprofit-Organisation [Handbook of Non-Profit Organizations] (5th ed.) (pp. 15–36). Stuttgart, Germany: Schäffer-Poeschel.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Copyright information

© 2015 Marius Mews and Silke Boenigk

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Mews, M., Boenigk, S. (2015). Giving in Germany: Toward Systematic Information on a Fragmented Nonprofit Sector. In: Wiepking, P., Handy, F. (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137341532_11

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics