Advertisement

Abstract

Among all Chinese autocrats, the Kangxi emperor has secured perhaps the best reputation. His reign was long, and while it was not perfectly peaceful, his rule was roundly accepted as legitimate and even sagely. In fact, it was probably the absence of peace, or stability, in the early years of Kangxi’s tenure, that contributed most significantly to his acceptance as a sage. While it may be a cliché to say that Kangxi was a political genius, he certainly proved to be a remarkably dexterous manager of shifting political landscapes, and his ascendency came during a time of great flux.

Keywords

Common People Progressive Taxation Confucian Scholar Grand Canal Early Qing Dynasty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Harold Lyman Miller, “Factional Conflict and the Integration of Ch’ing Politics, 1661–1690” (PhD diss., George Washington University, 1974), 55;Google Scholar
  2. Liu Jiaju, Rujia sixiang yu Kangxi dadi (Taipei: Taiwan xuesheng shuju, 2002), 38;Google Scholar
  3. William Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, eds., Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 1 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 45;Google Scholar
  4. Arthur Waley, trans., The Analects of Confucius (New York: Vintage Books, 1938), 120.Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    Da Qing Shengzu Ren (Kangxi) huangdi shilu, ch. 34, lOa-b, reprinted in Da Qing Shengzu Ren (Kangxi) huangdi shilu, vol. 1 (Taipei: Xin wenfeng chuban gongsi, 1978), 485; Michael Chang, A Court on Horseback: Imperial Touring and the Construction of Qing Rule, 1680–1785 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2007), 75–77.Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations (New York: Modern Library, 1994), 856–59.Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    Liu Jiaju, Rujia sixiang yu Kangxi dadi, 14, 16; Da Qing Shengzu Ren (Kangxi) huangdi shilu, ch. 43, 16b, reprinted in Da Qing Shengzu Ren (Kangxi) huangdi shilu, vol. 1, 604; Jonathan D. Spence, Emperor of China: Self Portrait of K’ang-hsi (New York: Vintage Books, 1988), front cover; Kangxi, Shengzu Ren huangdi tingxun geyan, 4b, reprinted in Wu zi jin si lu, ed. Gugong bowuyuan (Haikou: Hainan chubanshe, 2001), 415; Zhang Qin, Kangxi zheng yao, xu, 2a-b, reprinted in Kangxi zheng yao, Zhang Qin (Taipei: Huawen shuju, 1969), 3–4.Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    Liu Jiaju, Rujia sixiang yu Kangxi dadi, 16; Kangxi, Shengzu Ren huangdi tingxun geyan, 10a-b, 103a, reprinted in Wu zi jin si lu, 418, 465; Harry Miller, State versus Gentry in Late Ming Dynasty China, 1572–1644 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 95.Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    Liu Jiaju, Rujia sixiang yu Kangxi dadi, 16, 42–43fn28; William Theodore de Bary and Richard Lufrano, eds., Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 2 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 16.Google Scholar
  10. 7.
    Jonathan Spence, “The K’ang-hsi Reign,” in The Cambridge History of China, ed. Willard J. Peterson, vol. 9, pt. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 139–40;Google Scholar
  11. Liu Fengyun, “Shi lun Qing chu sanfan fan Qing de shehui jichu,” Beifang luncong 1986.3, 64–65; Liu Fengyun, Qingdai sanfan yanjiu (Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue chubanshe, 1994), 206–11, 224–28;Google Scholar
  12. Frederick W Mote, Imperial China, 900–1800 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 847.Google Scholar
  13. 8.
    Frederic Wakeman Jr., The Fall of Imperial China (New York: Free Press, 1977), 90;Google Scholar
  14. Frederic Wakeman Jr., The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 1074–99, 1110;Google Scholar
  15. Liu Fengyun, “Shi lun Qing chu sanfan fan Qing de shehui jichu,” 66–67; Mote, Imperial China, 846; Lawrence D. Kessler, K’ang-hsi and the Consolidation of Ch’ing Rule, 1661–1684 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), 85–86.Google Scholar
  16. 9.
    Wu Zhongkuang et al., eds., Man Han mingchen zhuan, vol. 1 (Harbin: Heilongjiang renmin chubanshe, 1991), 694–95; “Jiangsu fansi / Anhui xiansi chengxiang shuce,” Number One Historical Archives (sanfan shil-iao), item 2805, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Fan Shuzhi, “‘Tan ding ru di’ de youlai yu fazhan,” Fudan xuebao, shehui kexue ban 4 (1984): 92–94; Miller, “Factional Conflict,” 72–82;Google Scholar
  18. Jerry Dennerline, “Fiscal Reform and Local Control: The Gentry-Bureaucratic Alliance Survives the Conquest,” in Conflict and Control in Late Imperial China, ed. Frederic Wakeman Jr. and Carolyn Grant (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 114; Wu Zhongkuang et al., Man Han mingchen zhuan, vol. 2, 1467–68; Huang Zhijuan et al., eds., Jiangnan tong zhi, ch. 76, 13b-14a, vol. 2 (Taipei: Jinghua shuju, 1967), 1309. “Factional Conflict,” 86; Dennerline, “Fiscal Reform and Local Control,” 118–19.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Earl Swisher, “Chen Tzu-lung,” in Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period, ed. Arthur Hummel (Taipei: Ch’eng wen, 1972), 103;Google Scholar
  20. Chao-ying Fang, “Ts’ai Yu-jung,” in Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period, ed. Arthur Hummel (Taipei: Ch’eng wen, 1972), 734–35;Google Scholar
  21. Xie Guozhen, Ming Qing biji tancong (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1981), 68; Aca-demia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology, Renming quanwei zil-iao chaxun (Internet resource).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Wang Shengshi, Man you ji lue, ch. 4, 10b-llb, reprinted in Cong shu ji ch eng s an bian, vol. 80 (Taipei: Xin wen feng, 1996), 283–84; George Kennedy, “Ni Yuan-lu,” in Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period, ed. Arthur Hummel (Taipei: Ch’eng wen, 1972), 587.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Jerry Dennerline, The Chia-ting Loyalists: Confucian Leadership and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century China (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981), 318;Google Scholar
  24. Lynn A. Struve, “Ambivalence and Action: Some Frustrated Scholars of the K’ang-hsi Period,” in From Ming to Ch’ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China, ed. Jonathan D. Spence and John E. Wills Jr. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979), 342, 347–48;Google Scholar
  25. John R. Watt, The District Magistrate in Late Imperial China (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), 30, 44–45; Wakeman, The Great Enterprise, 707;Google Scholar
  26. R Kent Guy, Qing Governors and their Provinces: The Evolution of Territorial Administration in China, 1644–1796 (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2010), 240–4.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Song Yi, “Kangxi huangdi de nanshufang,” in Beijing shiyuan, vol. 3 (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe, 1985), 320–23.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Song Yi, “Kangxi huangdi de nanshufang,” 324–26; Ray Huang, 1587, A Tear of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981), 44.Google Scholar
  29. 30.
    Hellmut Wilhelm, “The Po-Hsueh Hung-ju Examination of 1679,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 71, no. 1 (January–March 1951): 60–66; Miller, “Factional Conflict,” 97–98;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hok-lam Chan, “The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsuan-te Reigns,” in The Cambridge History of China, ed. Denis Twitchett and Frederick W. Mote, vol. 7 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 220; Guy, Qing Governors and their Provinces, 242.Google Scholar
  31. 32.
    Kong Dingfang, “Qing chu chaoting yu Mng yimin guanyu ‘zhitong’ yu ‘daotong’ hefaxing de jiaoliang,”194–95; Kangxi, “Jin cheng shu,” Ri jiang si shu jie yi, 2a-3a, reprinted in Si ku quan shu hui yao, vol. 76, 201; Herbert Giles, A Chinese Biographical Dictionary (Taipei: Ch’eng Wen, 1975), 75–76.Google Scholar
  32. 36.
    Benjamin A. Elman, “Social Roles of Literati in Early to Md-Ch’ing,” in The Cambridge History of China, ed. Willard J. Peterson, vol. 9 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 368–69;Google Scholar
  33. Peter K. Bol, Neo-Confucianism in History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2008), 277;Google Scholar
  34. Jinxing Huang, The Price of Having a Sage Emperor: The Assimilation of the Tradition of the Way by the Political Establishment in the Light of the K’ang-hsi Emperor’s Governance (Singapore: Institute of East Asian Philosophies, 1987), 145–6, 160–61; Zhang Qin, xu, 2a-b, mu lu, 4a-b, reprinted in Kangxi zhengyao, 3–1, 19–20.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    Sarah Schneewind, ed., Long Live the Emperor! Uses of the Ming Founder across Six Centuries of East Asian History (Minneapolis, MN: Society for Ming Studies, 2008), esp. 1–14;Google Scholar
  36. John D. Langlois Jr. “The Hung-wu Reign, 1368–1398,” in The Cambridge History of China, ed. Denis Twitchett and Frederick W. Mote, vol. 7 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 154–55;Google Scholar
  37. Edward L. Dreyer, Early Ming China: A Political History, 1355–1435 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1982), 174.Google Scholar
  38. 39.
    Shen Zongjing, Sheng jia nan xun hui ai lu (Kangxi manuscript), ci mu, la-b; Guoli zhongyang tushuguan, Guoli zhongyang tushuguan shanben shumu (Taipei: Guoli zhongyang tushuguan, 1986), 190.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Harry Miller 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations