Comfort women (慰安婦)1 were young women who were forcibly, and often violently, taken as sex slaves by the Japanese army during 1932–1945. It is estimated that up to 200,000 women were forced to serve as comfort women. 2 They were primarily Asian women from Korea, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia. A smaller number of European women from the Dutch East Indies also became comfort women against their will. 3
- Sexual Violence
- Korean Woman
- Confucian Ethic
- Korean People
- Comfort Woman
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Chung Hyun Kyung, “Your Comfort versus My Death: Korean Comfort Women,“ in War’s Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes against Women, ed. Anne Llewellyn Barstow (Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 2000), 13–25.
See Theresa Park, A Gift of the Emperor (Duluth: Spinsters Ink Books, 1997). In this fictional story, Park describes how comfort women were considered a gift.
Jürgen Moltmann, Experiences in Theology: Ways and Forms of Christian Theology (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000), 185.
Andrew Sung Park, The Wounded Heart of God (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1993), 10.
Duk-Kyung Kang, Bitterness of Comfort Women’s Ghosts. 64*47, acrylic on paper, 1995, in UnblossomedFlowers: Collection of Art Work by Comfort Women Halmonis, ed. House of Sharing (Kwangju, Korea: House of Sharing, 2000).
Korean Council for Women Drafted for Sexual Slavery by Japan, ed., 역사를 만드는 이야기 [Stories That Make History](Seoul, Korea: Women and Human Rights, 2004), 114.
Schellstede, Sangmie Choi, ed., Comfort Women Speak: Testimony by Sex Slaves of the Japanese Military (New York: Holmes & Meier, 2000).
Sang Hwa Lee “일본군‘위안부’의 귀국후삶의 경험[Post-War Experiences of Comfort Women]“ in 일분군‘위안부’문제의 진상[Realities of Comfort Women](Seoul, Korea: History and Criticism, 2000), 253.
Korean Council for Women Drafted for Sexual Slavery by Japan, Stories That Make History (Seoul, Korea: Women and Human Rights, 2004), 107.
Duk-Kyung Kang, Nightmare, acrylic on paper, 53*39, in UnblossomedFlowers: Collection of Art Work by Comfort Women Halmonis, House of Sharing, ed. (Kwangju, Korea: House of Sharing, 2000), 3–17.
Leander E. Keck, The New Interpreter’s Bible Volume VII (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1996), 318.
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See an excellent collection of on this issue in Anne Llewellyn Barstow, ed., War’s Dirty Secrets: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes Against Women (Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 2000).
Zillah Eisenstein, Sexual Decoys: Gender, Race, and War in Imperial Democracy (London; New York: Zed Books, 2007), 28.
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For Japan’s rising imperialism and its affect on other Asian nations, see Li Narangoa and Robert Cribb, eds., Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, 1895–1945 (London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003).
Jung OkYoon, “조선식민정책의 일환으로서 일본군위안부” [“Comfort Women as Part of Japan’s Colonization of Korea],” in 일본군 위안부 문제의 진상 [The Truth about the Japanese Military Comfort Women] (Seoul, Korea: the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, 1997), 276.
The Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, ed., The Cry That Has Not Ended: Collection of Statements from the Wednesday Protests, January 8, 1992-March 17, 2004 (Seoul, Korea: Women and Human Rights Press, 2004), 21.
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Mark E. Caprio, “Assimilation Rejected: The Tong A Ilbo’s Challenge to Japan’s Colonial Policy in Korea,” in Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, 1895—1945, ed. Li Narangoa and Robert Cribb (London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 140.
Margaret Stetz and Bonnie B. C. Oh, eds, Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II (Armonk, NY; London, England: M. E. Sharpe, an East Gate Book, 2001), xii.
Hyun Hee Lee, 인물 한국사 [The History of Korem People] (Seoul, Korea: Chung A, 2002), 46–48.
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Martina Deuchler notes that “residence patterns, inheritance rules, and social and ritual recognition provided women with a firm and independent standing in Koryo society.” Preface to Korean Women: View From the Inner Room, ed. Laurel Kendall and Mark Peterson (New Haven, CT: East Rock Press, 1983), 1.
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Barry Sandywell, Presocratic Reflexivity: The Construction of Philosophical Discourse c. 600–450 B.C. (London; New York: Routledge, 1996), 280.
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For the details of “inner quarters,” see Patricia Buckley Ebrey’s excellent analysis in The Inner Quarters: Marriage and Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). She writes on Chinese women in the Sung Period when neo-Confucianism emerged and strengthened, limiting women to domestic affairs only.
Laurel Kendall and Mark Peterson, “Traditional Korean Women: A Reconsideration” in Korean Women: View from the Inner Room. ed. Laurel Kendall and Mark Peterson (New Haven, CT: East Rock Press, 1983), 5. It is of great importance to note that not all women complied with the nei/wei distinction. Shamans and Kisaeng (professional entertainer) “lived outside the walls of social tradition and Confucian ideology,” 2.132.
See Youngmin Kim, “Voices of Female Confucians in Late Chosun Korea,” in Religions of Korea in Practice, ed. Robert E. Buswell Jr. (Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007), 223–230.
Martina Deuchler, “Propagating Female Virtures in Chosun Korea,” in Women and Confucian Cultures in Premodern China, Korea, and Japan, ed. Dorothy Ko, JaHyun Kim Haboush, and Joan R. Piggot (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 160.
Chenyang Li, “Jen and the Feminist Ethics of Care,“ in The Sage and the Second Sex, ed. Chenyang Li (Chicago: Open Court, 2000), 25.
Sor-Hoon Tan, “Women’s Virtues and the Analects,” in Conceptions of Virtue: East and West, ed. Kim-Chong Chong and Yuli Liu (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic, 2006), 270.
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Terry Woo, “Confucianism and Feminism,” in Feminism and World Religions, ed. Arvind Sharma and Katherine K. Young (New York: State University of New York Press, 1999), 116.
© 2013 Hwa-Young Chong
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Chong, HY. (2013). Broken Bodies of Korean Comfort Women. In: In Search of God’s Power in Broken Bodies. New Approaches to Religion and Power. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137331458_3
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