Skip to main content

Understanding Swedish Multiculturalism

  • Chapter

Part of the Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series book series ( CAL)

Abstract

Sweden is often portrayed as one of the most prominent representatives of an officially declared multicultural policy. Indeed, the Swedish case has been celebrated, alongside Canada and Australia, as the model for positive multicultural immigrant integration (Castles and Miller 1993). Sweden was also often mentioned — together with the UK and the Netherlands — as one of the European countries that in the postwar period most markedly adopted a multicultural policy (Koopmans et al. 2005; Freeman 2004; Castles and Miller 1993). The policy processes that followed after the terror attacks in 2001 profoundly changed this standard story, and now it is commonplace to characterize UK and Dutch multiculturalism as being in retreat (e.g. Joppke 2004; Entzinger 2003). However, when it comes to describing the current condition of multiculturalism in Sweden, commentators usually either give a rather uncertain or vague picture, or hold that the country constitutes something of an exception to the common European trend of backing down from previous multicultural policies (Koopmans et al. 2005; Joppke 2004). Hence, there is a widespread idea first that Sweden represents one of the clearest examples of immigrant multiculturalism in Europe, and second that this policy approach in Sweden, in contrast with other countries, remains rather unaffected by the ‘multiculturalism crisis’ that has been witnessed throughout the Western world since the turn of the millennium.

Keywords

  • Bonding Social Capital
  • National Minority
  • Swedish Society
  • Dual Citizenship
  • Minority School

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1057/9781137318459_6
  • Chapter length: 30 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-137-31845-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Ålund, Aleksandra and Schierup, Carl-Ulrik. 1991. Paradoxes of Multiculturalism: Essays on Swedish Society. Aldershot: Avebury.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aytar, Osman. 2004. ‘Kommunikation på olika villkor — om samrådet mellan invandrarorganisationerna och svenska staten’. Föreningsliv, makt och integration: rapport från Integrationspolitiska maktutredningens forskningsprogram. 65–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Banting, Keith, Richard Johnston, Will Kymlicka and Stuart Soroka. 2006. Do Multiculturalism Policies Erode the Welfare State? An Empirical Analysis, in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka (eds.). Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barry, Brian. 2001. Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berglund, Jenny. 2010. Teaching Islam: Islamic Religious Education in Sweden. Münster: Waxmann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Borevi, Karin 2012. Sweden: The Flagship of Multiculturalism, in Grete Brochmann and Anniken Hagelund, Immigration Policy and the Scandinavian Welfare State 1945–2010. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Borevi, Karin. 2010. Dimensions of Citizenship: European Integration Policies from a Scandinavian Perspective., in Bo Bengtsson, Per Strömblad and Ann-Helén Bay (eds.). Diversity, Inclusion and Citizenship in Scandinavia. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Borevi, Karin. 2002. Välfärdsstaten i det mångkulturella samhället. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagelund, Anniken and Grete Brochmann. 2010. From Rights to Duties? Welfare and Citizenship for Immigrants and Refugees in Scandinavia, in Patrick Baert, Sokratis M. Koniordos, Giovanna Procacci, and Carlo Ruzza (eds.). Conflict, Citizenship and Civil Society, 141–160. London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carens, Joseph. 2000. Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Even-Handedness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller. 1993. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dahlström, Carl. 2004. Nästan välkomna: Invandrarpolitikens retorik och praktik. Göteborg: Göteborg Studies in Politics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Demker, Marie and Cecilia Malmström. 1999. Ingenmansland? Svensk immigrationspolitik i utrikespolitisk belysning. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Google Scholar 

  • Djuve, Anne Britt and Hanne Cecilie Kavli. 2007. Integrering i Danmark, Sverige og Norge. Felles utfordringer — like løsninger?. Tema Nord 2007: 575. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerrâd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Emami, Abbas. 2004. Internationaliserade relationer, fria organisationer — om sverigeiraniers föreningsliv. Föreningsliv, makt och integration: rapport från Integrationspolitiska maktutredningens forskningsprogram. 163–195.

    Google Scholar 

  • Entzinger, Han. 2003. The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism: The Case of the Netherlands, in Christian Joppke and Ewa Morawska (eds.). Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Favell, Adrian. 2001. Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Ideal of Citizenship in France and Britain. London: Palgrave.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fraser, Nancy. 1995. ‘From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-Socialist’ Age’, New Left Review. 212: 68–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, Gary P. 2004. ‘Immigrant Incorporation in Western Democracies’. International Migration Review. 38: 945–969.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Försvarsmakten. 2011. Instruktion för försvarsmakten. Uniformsbestämmelser 2009. http://www.forsvarsmakten.se/sv/Om-Forsvarsmakten/Dokument/Uniformsbestammelser/ (accessed 22 April 2012).

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerle, Elisabeth. 1999. Mångkulturalism för vem? Debatten om muslimska och kristna friskolor blottlägger värdekonflikter i det svenska samhället. Nora: Nya Doxa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, Sara Wallace. 2010. ‘Integration Requirements for Integration’s Sake? Identifying, Categorising and Comparing Civic Integration Policies’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 36(5): 753–772.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Government bill 1968:142. Angående riktlinjer för utlänningspolitiken m.m.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government bill 1975/76:26. Om riktlinjer för invandrar- och minoritetspolitiken m.m.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government bill 1985/86:98. Om invandrarpolitiken.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government bill 1997/98:16. Sverige, framtiden och mångfalden—från invandrarpolitik till integrationspolitik.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government bill 2007/08:95. Ett starkare skydd mot diskriminering.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gustavson, Per. 2000. ‘International Migration and National Belonging in the Swedish Debate on Dual Citizenship’, Acta Sociologica. 48: 5, 5–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hansen, Lars-Erik. 2001. Jämlikhet och valfrihet. En studie av den svenska invandrarpolitikens framväxt. Stockholm: Stockholms universitet.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hermansson, Jörgen (eds.). 1999. Avkorporativisering och lobbyism: konturerna till en ny politisk modell. Stockholm: Fakta info direkt.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs, Dirk, and Andrea Rea. 2007. The End of National Models? Integration Courses and Citizenship Trajectories in Europe. International Journal on Mul ticul tural Societies. 9: 264–283.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joppke, Christian. 2004. ‘The Retreat of Multiculturalism in the Liberal State: Theory and Policy’, The British Journal of Sociology. 55: 237–257.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Joppke, Christian. 2007. ‘Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in Western Europe’, West European Politics. 30(1): 1–22.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Joppke, Christian and Ewa Morawska. 2003. Integrating Migrants in Liberal Nation-states: Policies and Practices, in Christian Joppke, and Ewa Morawska (eds.). Towards Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States, 1–36. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koopmans, Ruud, Paul Statham, Marco Giugni and Florence Passy. 2005. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kymlicka, Will. 2007. Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics ofDiversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laborde, Cécile. 2005. ‘Secular Philosophy and Muslim Headscarves in School’, The Journal of Political Philosophy. 13(3): 305–329.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lundh, Christer, and Rolf Ohlsson. 1994. Från arbetskraftsimport till flyktinginvandring. Stockholm: SNS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Multiculturalism Policy Index. 2012. http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/ (accessed March 2012.)

  • Nelhans, Joachim. 1973. Utlänningen på arbetsmarknaden. De rättsliga förutsättningarna för utlännings tillträde till den svenska arbetsmarknaden, Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nilsson, Åsa, and Ingvar Svanberg. 1997. Religiös slakt. In: Pia Karlsson, and Ingvar Svanberg (eds.). Religionsfrihet i Sverige: Om möjligheten att leva som troende, 70–96. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Google Scholar 

  • Okin, Susan Moller. 1999. Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? In Susan Moller Okin, Joshua Cohen, Mathew Howard, and Martha C. Nussbaum (eds.). Is Multi-Culturalism Bad for Women? 7–26. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parekh, Bhikhu. 2000. Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, Anne. 2007. Multiculturalism without Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Report of the Committee on Social Insurance 1985/86:20. Om invandrarpolitiken.

    Google Scholar 

  • Report of the Committee on Social Insurance 1997/98:6. Sverige, framtiden och mångfalden – från invandrarpolitik till integrationspolitik.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rikspolisstyrelsen (2011). Rikspolisstyrelsens foreskrifter och allmänna råd om Polisens uniformer. FAP 798–1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sayed, Mosa. 2009. Islam och arvsrätt i det mångkulturella Sverige: en internationellt privaträttslig och jämförande studie. Uppsala: Iustus förlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • SFS 1974:152. Regeringsformen. Stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag.

    Google Scholar 

  • SFS 2008:567. Diskrimineringslag. Stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag.

    Google Scholar 

  • SOU 1974:69. Invandrarutredningen 3. Invandrarna och minoriteterna: huvudbetänkande. Stockholm: LiberFörlag/Allmänna förl.

    Google Scholar 

  • SOU 1984:55. I rätt riktning. Etniska relationer i Sverige. Slutbetänkande av diskrimineringsutredningen. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • SOU 1984:58. Invandrar- och minoritetspolitiken. Slutbetänkande av Invandrarpolitiska kommittén. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • SOU 1996:55. Sverige, framtiden och mångfalden. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tolley, Erin. 2010. Multiculturalism Policy Index: Immigrant Minority Policies, Queens University: Department of Political Studies (unpublished paper).

    Google Scholar 

  • Vertovec, Steven and Wessendorf, Susanne. 2010. Introduction, in Vertovec, Steven and Wessendorf, Susanne (eds.). 2010. The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wikan, Unni. 2004. Deadly Distrust: Honor Killings and Swedish Multiculturalism’, in Russel Hardin (ed.). Distrust, 192–204. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright, Susan. 2008. ‘Citizenship Tests in Europe—Editorial Introduction’, International Journal on Multicultural Societies. 10: 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yack, Bernard. 1999. The Myth of the Civic Nation, in Ronald Beiner (ed.) Theorizing Nationalism, 103–118. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Copyright information

© 2013 Karin Borevi

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Borevi, K. (2013). Understanding Swedish Multiculturalism. In: Kivisto, P., Wahlbeck, Ö. (eds) Debating Multiculturalism in the Nordic Welfare States. Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137318459_6

Download citation