Advertisement

European Identity: Conflict and Cooperation

  • Angela Bourne
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)

Abstract

A large literature now examines ‘European identities’, or employs the concept of ‘identities’ in analysis of the EU. This is something which could not be said of earlier phases in EU studies (Keeler, 2005: 571), even if some of the founding fathers of EU studies address it in their work (Haas, 1958, 1964; Deutsch, 1953, 1957). Ernst Haas, for instance, defined European integration as a process that involved a ‘shift of loyalties’ by ‘political actors in several distinct national settings’ to a ‘new political centre’ (1958: 16), while Deutsch includes a ‘sense of community’ in his conception of integration (for further discussion see Risse, 2005). Growing academic interest in the study of identities in Europe responds to what Rosamond (2007) calls ‘external’ and ‘internal’ drivers. Academic interest in the topic is a response to changes ‘on the ground’, or external drivers. The post-Cold War, post-Maastricht and even post-‘war on terror’ context has been one in which European integration and certain kinds of identity polemics have become more contentious. This has raised questions about the relationship between identity, on the one hand, and the legitimacy of EU institutions, prospects for meaningful democracy beyond the state and the very future of the EU on the other. Moreover, large scale and continuing enlargement of the EU since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the prospect of Turkish membership and growing contestation over the coexistence of Christian, Islamic and secular traditions in European societies have increased cultural diversity in the EU and the salience of debates on identity. However, academic interest in European identities also reflects the evolution of theoretical debates on the EU, or internal drivers. It is no coincidence that increasing attention to issues of identity coincide with the onset of what Weiner and Diez (2009) describe as the second ‘analysing governance’ and third ‘constructing the EU’ phase of theory building, which focus more attention on issues of polity and the social context of European integration.

Keywords

European Integration National Identity Single Case Study European Identity Common Market Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Börzel, T. (2002) States and Regions in the European Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  2. Bourne, A. (2003) ‘The Impact of European Integration on Regional Power’, Journal of Common Market Studies 41(4): 597–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bourne, A. (ed.) (2004) The EU and Territorial Politics Within Member States: Conflict or Cooperation? (The Netherlands: Brill).Google Scholar
  4. Bourne, A. (2006) ‘Bringing Europe Closer to the Citizen? Regions, Stateless Nations and the European Convention’, Regional and Federal Studies 16(1): 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourne, A. (2008) The European Union and the Accommodation of Basque Difference in Spain (Manchester: Manchester University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brewin, C. (2000) The European Union and Cyprus (Cambridgeshire: Eothen).Google Scholar
  7. Bruter, M. (2003) ‘Winning Hearts and Minds for Europe: The Impact of News and Symbols on Civic and Cultural European Identity’, Comparative Political Studies 36(10): 1148–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods, 4th edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  9. Carey, S. (2002) ‘Undivided Loyalties: Is National Identity an Obstacle to European Integration?’, European Union Politics 3(4): 387–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castiglione, D. (2009) ‘Political Identity in a Community of Strangers’, in Checkel, J.T. and Katzenstein, P.J. (eds.) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  11. Castrano, E., Yzerbyt, V.Y. and Bourguignon, D. (2003) ‘We Are One and I Like It: The Impact of Ingroup Entitativity on Ingroup Identification’, European Journal of Social Psychology 33(6): 735–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Checkel, J.T. and Katzenstein, P.J. (2009) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cini, M. (2006) ‘The “State of the Art” in EU Studies: From Politics to Interdisciplinarity (and Back Again?)’, Political Studies 26(1): 38–46.Google Scholar
  14. de Vries, C. and van Kersbergen, K. (2007) ‘Interests, Identity and Political Allegiance in the European Union’, Acta Politica 42(2–3): 307–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deutsch, K. (1953) Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry Into the foundations of Nationality (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).Google Scholar
  16. Deutsch, K. (1957) Political Community and the North Atlantic Area (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  17. Díez Medrano, J. (2003) Framing Europe: Attitudes to European Integration in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  18. Diez Medrano, J. and Gutiérrez, P. (2001) Nested Identities: National and European Identity in Spain, Ethnic and Racial Studies 24(5): 753–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diez, T. (ed.) (2002) The European Union and the Cyprus Conflict (Manchester: Manchester University Press).Google Scholar
  20. Egeberg, M. (1996) ‘Organisation and Nationality in the European Commission Services’, Public Administration 74(4): 721–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Egeberg, M. (1999) Transcending Intergovernmentalism: Identity and Role Perceptions of National Officials in European Decision-Making’, Journal of European Public Policy 6(3): 456–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eichenberg, E. and Dalton, R. (1993) ‘Europeans and the European Community: The Dynamics of Public Support for European Integration’, International Organization 4(7): 507–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Favell, A. (2009) ‘Immigration, Migration and Free Movement in the Making of Europe’, in Checkel, J.T. and Katzenstein, P.J. (eds.) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  24. Fligstein, N. (2009) ‘Who Are the Europeans and How Does This Matter for Politics?’, in Checkel, J.T. and Katzenstein, P.J. (eds.) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  25. Franklin, M., van der Eijk, C. and Marsh, M. (1995) ‘Referendum Outcomes and Trust in Government: Public Support for Europe in the Wake of Maastricht’, Western European Politics 18(1): 101–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gabel, M. (1998) ‘Public Support for European Integration: An Empirical Test of Five Theories’, Journal of Politics 60(2): 333–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haas, E. (1958) The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces, 1950–1957 (London: Stevens; Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  28. Haas, E. (1964) Beyond the Nation-State: Functionalism and International Organisation (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  29. Habermas, J. (2005) ‘February 15, or What Binds Europeans Together: A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, Beginning in the Core of Europe’, Constellations 10(3): 291–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Habermas, J. (2006) The Divided West (Cambridge: Polity Press).Google Scholar
  31. Harmsen, R. and Wilson, T. (eds.) (2000) Europeanization: Institution, Identities and Citizenship (Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi).Google Scholar
  32. Herrmann, R. and Brewer, M. (2004) ‘Identities and Institutions: Becoming European in the EU’, in Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. (eds.) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield).Google Scholar
  33. Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. (eds.) (2004) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield).Google Scholar
  34. Holmes, D.R. (2009) ‘Experimental Identities (after Maastricht)’, in Checkel, J.T. and Katzenstein, P.J. (eds.) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  35. Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2004) ‘Does Identity or Economic Rationality Drive Public Opinion on European Integration?’, PS: Political Science and Politics 37: 415–20.Google Scholar
  36. Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2005) ‘Calculation, Community and Cues: Public Opinion on European Integration’, European Union Politics 6(4): 419–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huntington, S. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster).Google Scholar
  38. Inglehart, R. (1970) ‘Cognitive Mobilization and European Identity’, Comparative Politics 3: 45–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Inglehart, R., Rabier, J.R. and Reif, K. (1991) ‘The Evolution of Public Attitudes Toward European Integration: 1970–86’, in Reif, K. and Inglehart, R. (eds.) Eurobarometer: The Dynamics of European Public Opinion (London: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  40. Jeffery, C. (2000) ‘Sub-National Mobilisation and European Integration: Does It Make Any Difference’, Journal of Common Market Studies 38(1): 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Katzenstein, P.J. (1997) Tamed Power: Germany and Europe (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  42. Katzenstein, P.J. (2005) A World of Regions: Asia and Europe in the American Imperium (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  43. Katzenstein, P.J. and Checkel, J.T. (2009) ‘Conclusion — European Identity in Context’, in Checkel, J.T. and Katzenstein, P.J. (eds.) (2009) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  44. Keating, M. (2001) Plurinational Democracy: Stateless Nations in a Post-Sovereignty Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keating, M. and McGarry, J. (eds.) (2001) Minority Nationalism and the Changing International Order (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  46. Keeler, J.T. (2005) ‘Mapping EU Studies: The Evolution from Boutique to Boom Field 1960–1961’, Journal of Common Market Studies 43(3): 551–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kennedy, D. (1999) Living in the European Union: The Northern Ireland Experience (Basingstoke: St Martin’s Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kerremans, B. and Beyers, J. (1996) ‘The Belgian Sub-National Entities in the European Union: Second or Third Level Players?’, Regional and Federal Studies 6(2):41–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Laffan, B. (2004) ‘The European Union and Its Institutions as “Identity Builders”’, in Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. (eds.) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield).Google Scholar
  50. Landman, T. (2008) Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics (New York: Routledge)Google Scholar
  51. Lynggaard, K. (2011) ‘Domestic Change in the Face of European Integration and Globalization: Methodological Pitfalls and Pathways’, Comparative European Politics 9(1): 18–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leith, M.S. and Soule, D.P.J. (2011) Political discourse and national identity in Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Manners, I. (2002) ‘Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?’, Journal of Common Market Studies 40(2): 235–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Marks, G., Hooghe, L. and Blank, K. (1996) ‘European Integration from the 1980s: State Centric v. Multi-level Governance’, Journal of Common Market Studies 34(3): 341–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCall, C. (1998) ‘Post-Modern Europe and the Resources of Communal Identities in Northern Ireland’, European Journal of Political Research 33(3): 389–411.Google Scholar
  56. McLaren, L. (2002) ‘Public Support for the European Union: Cost/Benefit Analysis or Perceived Cultural Threat?’, Journal of Politics 64(2): 551–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meinhof, U. (2004) ‘Europe Viewed From Below: Agents, Victims and the Threat of the Other’, in Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. (eds.) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield).Google Scholar
  58. Risse, T. (2004) ‘European Institutions and Identity Change: What Have We Learned’, in Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. (eds.) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield).Google Scholar
  59. Risse, T. (2005) ‘Neofunctionalism, European Identity, and the Puzzles of European Integration’, Journal of European Public Policy 12(2): 291–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Risse, T. (2010) A Community of Europeans? Transnational Identities and Public Spheres (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  61. Rosamond, B. (2000) ‘Review Article: Globalization and Europeanization’, Yearbook of European Studies, 14: 261–74.Google Scholar
  62. Rosamond, B. (2007) ‘European Integration and the Social Science of EU Studies: The Disciplinary Politics of a Subfield’, International Affairs 83(2): 231–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Szczerbiak, A. and Taggart, P. (2008) Opposing Europe? (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  64. Tannam, E. (1997) ‘The European Commission and Conflict in Northern Ireland’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 11(1): 8–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tocci, N. (2002) ‘Cyprus and the European Union Accession Process: Inspiration for Peace or Incentive for Crisis’, Turkish Studies 3(2): 104–38.Google Scholar
  66. Trondal, J. (2001) ‘Is There Any Social Constructivist-Institutionalist Divide? Unpacking Social Mechanisms Affecting Representational Roles Among EU Decision-Makers’, Journal of European Public Policy 8(1): 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wallace, H. (2000) ‘Europeanization and Globalization: Complementary or Contradictory Models?’, New Political Economy 5(3): 369–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Warleigh, A. (2004) ‘In Defence of Intra-Disciplinarity: “European Studies”, the “New Regionalism” and the Issue of Democratisation’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 17(2): 301–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Weiner, A. and Diez, T. (2009) European Integration Theory, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  70. Wodak, R. (2004) ‘National and Transnational Identities: European and Other Identities Constructed in Interviews with EU Officials’, in Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. (eds.) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Angela Bourne 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Bourne

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations