The last decade or so has seen a marked revival of interest in Mazzini’s role in the Risorgimento and a far greater recognition of his contribution to the intellectual currents of the time, those which coalesced around ideas of nation building, self-determination, human rights and democracy.2 To some extent this revisionism has been prompted by the Mazzini and Garibaldi bicentenaries, and the recent 150th anniversary of Italian unification.3 It is also refracted by the turn to transnationalism, an approach which does not diminish the centrality of an Italian focus for Risorgimento studies but rather one which locates it within an international framework — as part of a wider ‘transcontinental, transatlantic and progressive nineteenth-century movement’.4 This work has had an impact on British studies too, expanding on Margot Finn’s groundbreaking critique of post-Chartist politics to flesh out the complex milieu of London émigré society in which Mazzini’s republican ideas were variously debated, contested and embraced.5 Some of these studies have revisited Mazzini’s own writings and there is much to be said for deepening that critique.6 As a natural corollary to this reappraisal, this chapter seeks to explore more fully the world of radical print culture which enabled him to develop and disseminate a vision of democracy that transcended national boundaries.
- Radical Artisan
- British Radical
- Monthly Record
- Republican Movement
- Complex Milieu
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‘The ink of the wise is the match of the might of the sword’, G. Mazzini (1831) La Giovine Italia, and cited by R. Sarti (2000) ‘Giuseppe Mazzini and his opponents’, in J. A. Davis (ed.) Italy in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press), p. 82.
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M. Finelli (2008) ‘Mazzini in Italian Historical Memory’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 13, 4, pp. 486–91. For earlier work that provides important British perspectives,
see D. Beales (1961) England and Italy (1859–60) (London: Nelson);
G. Claeys (1989) ‘Mazzini, Kossuth and British Radicalism, 1848–54’, Journal of British Studies, 28, 3, pp. 225–61;
D. Mack Smith (1991) ‘Britain and the Italian Risorgimento’, Journal of Anglo-Italian Studies, 5, pp. 83–102;
E. F. Biagini (1992) Liberty, Retrenchment and Reform: Popular Liberalism in the Age of Gladstone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press);
M. O’Connor (1998) The Romance of Italy and the English Political Imagination (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
R. Sarti (2008) ‘Thought and Action? Perspectives on Mazzini and Garibaldi on the Bicentenaries of their Births’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 13, 4, pp. 463–7;
L. Riall (2007) Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero (New Haven and London: Yale University Press);
C. Duggan (2008) ‘Giuseppe Mazzini in Britain and Italy: Divergent Legacies (1837–1915)’, in C. A. Bayly and E. F. Biagini (eds) Giuseppe Mazzini and the Globalisation of Democratic Nations (1830–1920) (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 187–210;
M. Pellegrino Sutcliffe (2014) Victorian Radicals and Italian Democrats (London: Boydell).
E. Dal Lago (2012) ‘“We Cherished the Same Hostility to Every Form of Tyranny”: Transatlantic Parallels and Contacts between William Lloyd Garrison and Giuseppe Mazzini, 1846–1872’, American Nineteenth Century History, 13, 3, pp. 293–319. For other transnational approaches, see ‘Chartism, Radicalism and Internationalism’, Labour History Review, Special Issue, 78, 1, 2013;
J. Allen, A. Campbell and J. McIlroy (eds) (2010) Histories of Labour: National and International Perspectives (London: Merlin).
M. Finn (1993) After Chartism: Class and Nation in English Radical Politics, 1848–1874 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Finelli, ‘Mazzini in Italian Historical Memory’, p. 490; M. Ridolfi (2008) ‘Visions of Republicanism in the Writings of Giuseppe Mazzini’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 13, 4, pp. 468–79.
L. Riall (1994) Risorgimento: The History of Italy from Napoleon to Nation State (London: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 133–7 (p. 133);
D. Mack Smith (1994) Mazzini (New Haven: Yale University Press), p. 215.
T. Jones (1907; Reptd.,1924) ‘Introduction’, in J. Mazzini, The Duties of Man and Other Essays (London and Toronto: J. M. Dent and Sons), p. xiii.
Between April and September 1839, the Northern Star attained 43,000 weekly sales. Reynold’s Miscellany sold 300,000 copies per week in the mid-1850s. See L. Brake and M. Demoor (eds) (2009) Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism (Ghent and London: Academia Press British Library), pp. 459, 539–40.
Lord John Russell to Queen Victoria, 29 February 1848, and cited in J. Saville (2003) ‘1848 — Britain and Europe’, in S. Freitag (ed.) Exiles from European Revolutions (New York & Oxford: Berghahn), p. 23.
D. Cesarani (1996) ‘The Changing Character of Citizenship and Nationality in Britain’, in D. Cesarani and M. Fulbrook (eds) Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe (London: Routledge), p. 61.
See also P. Panayi (1999) German Immigrants in Britain during the 19th Century, 1815–1914 (Oxford: Berg), pp. 69–82;
B. Porter (1979) The Refugee Question in Mid-Victorian Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Saville, ‘1848 — Britain and Europe’, p. 24. See also A. Fahrmeir (2003) ‘British Exceptionalism in Perspective: Political Asylum in Continental Europe’, in Freitag, Exiles from European Revolutions, pp. 34–8.
F. Bensimon (2012) ‘British Workers in France, 1815–1848’, Past and Present, 213, 1, p. 149.
D. Beales and E. F. Biagini (2002) The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy (Harlow: Pearson Education), p. 56;
H. Hearder (1983) Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento, 1790–1870 (Harlow: Longman), p. 187.
Sarti, ‘Giuseppe Mazzini and his Opponents’, pp. 83–4; S. J. Woolf (1991) A History of Italy, 1700–1860 (London: Routledge), p. 312.
Woolf, A History of Italy, pp. 307–11; C. Duggan (2008) The Force of Destiny. A History of Italy since 1796 (London: Penguin), p. 186.
F. B. Smith (1973) Radical Artisan: William James Linton 1812–97 (Manchester: Manchester University Press), pp. 51–2;
W. J. Linton (1892) European Republicans: Recollections of Mazzini and his Friends (London: Lawrence and Bullen), pp. v–vi.
G. Mazzini (2001) Thoughts upon Democracy in Europe, 1846–1847 (Florence: Centro Editoriale Toscano), trans. S. Mastellone, pp. 1–67.
I. Prothero (2003) ‘Chartists and Political Refugees’, in Freitag, Exiles from European Revolutions, p. 225; Smith, Radical Artisan, p. 60; Linton, European Republicans, p. 62; Edinburgh Magazine, October 1847.
J. Allen (2007) Joseph Cowen and Popular Radicalism on Tyneside, 1829–1900 (Monmouth: Merlin Press).
G. D. H. Cole (1965) Chartist Portraits (London: Macmillan), p. 268.
D. Goodway, ‘Harney (George) Julian (1817–1897) Chartist and Journalist’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, available at: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/42340, accessed 5 February 2011; A. R. Schoyen (1958) The Chartist Challenge: a Portrait of George Julian Harney (London: Heinemann);
D. Goodway (1982) London Chartism, 1838–1848 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
S. Maccoby (1935) English Radicalism 1832–1852 (London: Allen and Unwin), p. 379.
See the correspondence dated 1844 to 1847 between Mazzini and Harney in F. G. Black and R. M. Black (eds) (1969) The Harney Papers (Assen: Van Gorcum), pp. 47–52 (notably letters nos. 58–67).
Linton, European Republicans, pp. 70, 93; Sarti, ‘Giuseppe Mazzini and his Opponents’, pp. 92–5; M. Rapport (2005) Nineteenth-Century Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), p. 145.
For more detail on events in Italy, see Rapport, Nineteenth-Century Europe, pp. 144–51; Woolf, History of Italy, pp. 361–406; Riall, Risorgimento, pp. 21–2. More generally, see J. Merriman (1996) A History of Modern Europe, vol. 2 (New York: W. W. Norton and Co), pp. 728–30, 742–4.
For a detailed study of Harney’s journalism in this period see J. Allen (2013) ‘“The Teacher of Strange Doctrines”: George Julian Harney and the Democratic Review, 1849–1850’, Labour History Review, 78, 1, pp. 67–86.
Northern Star, 10, 17 and 24 March 1849. See also, P. A. Pickering (2008) Feargus O’Connor: A Political Life (Monmouth: Merlin Press).
John G. Whittier, To Pius IX, DR, November 1849, pp. 238–9.
DR, June 1850, p. 40; Schoyen, Chartist Challenge, pp. 194–5; M. Chase (2007) Chartism: A New History (Manchester: Manchester University Press), pp. 335–6; Pickering, Feargus O’Connor, p. 137.
Smith, Radical Artisan, pp. 76–9; Chase, Chartism, pp. 335, 338; K. Parkes (1891) ‘Introduction’, The English Republic (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.), p. v.
Joseph Cowen, ‘Exposition of Principles’, Northern Tribune: A Periodical for the People, [NT], vol. I, January 1854, p. 3.
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© 2015 Joan Allen
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Allen, J. (2015). ‘The ink of the wise’: Mazzini, British Radicalism and Print Culture, 1848–1855. In: Carter, N. (eds) Britain, Ireland and the Italian Risorgimento. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137297723_3
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