Introduction: Knowledge, Incorporated

  • Larry Duffy
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Modern European Literature book series (PMEL)


This book emerges from a project that at its inception was concerned primarily with the methods and processes whereby Gustave Flaubert and Émile Zola, the two pre-eminent documentary novelists of the nineteenth century, incorporated extra-literary material into their fictional works. Their extensive incorporative activity is evident from the substantial manuscript corpora that both authors accumulated; these corpora of documentary and preparatory material contain traces linking published fiction to specific extra-literary works, as well as to extensive notes on such works.


Nineteenth Century Club Foot Early Nineteenth Century Professional Body Literary Text 
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Copyright information

© Larry Duffy 2015

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  • Larry Duffy

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