Advertisement

From Heritage to Archaeology and Back Again

  • Shatha Abu Khafajah
  • Arwa Badran

Abstract

Archaeology is often seen as a scientific discipline that explores the material of the past. Likewise, heritage is conventionally understood as material from the past to which people develop a sense of attachment and pride. Although heritage studies, as an academic endeavour, is relatively new compared with the science of archaeology, we argue that ancient cultures conserved material of the past because they considered it their heritage. For example, the prominent Roman architect in the first century CE, Vitruvius, regarded the architectural heritage of Rome as a reflection of his people’s achievements at all levels: a heritage that expressed Roman culture and shaped its present and future. In Vitruvius’ (1995, I, p. 5) words to Caesar: ‘with respect to the future, you have such regard to public and private buildings, that they will correspond to the grandeur of our history, and will be a memorial to future ages’. The Theodosian Code and Novels and the Sirmondian Constitution documented the law of Rome in the time between 313 CE and 438 CE. The Code, edited and translated by Clyde Pharr in 1952, demonstrated different measures to protect the Classical material of the past. For example, penalties against those who stole or vandalized monuments or tombs were declared (Pharr, 1952, p. 239). Furthermore, officers were designated to inspect monuments regularly and to report the necessary levels of interventions needed to preserve the Classical material of the past (Pharr, 1952, p. 242).

Keywords

Cultural Heritage Material Culture Historic Preservation Heritage Management World Archaeological Congress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adovasio, J. M. and Carlisle, R. C. (1988) ‘Some Thoughts on Cultural Resources Management Archaeology in the United States’, Antiquity, 62, 72–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anawak, J. (1996) ‘Inuit Perceptions of the Past’ in R. W. Preucel and I. Hodder (eds) Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 646–52.Google Scholar
  3. Anyon, R. and Ferguson, T. J. (1995) ‘Cultral Resources Management at the Pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico, USA’, Antiquity 69(266), 913–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Binford, L. R. (1962) ‘Archaeology as Anthropology’, American Antiquity, 28(2), 217–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Binford, L. R. (1965) ‘Systematic and Cultural Process’, American Antiquity, 31(2), 203–09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binford, L. R. (1983) In Pursuit of the Past: Decoding the Archaeological Record (New York: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
  7. Bowdler, S. (1988) ‘Repainting Australian Rock Art’, Antiquity, 62(236), 517–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carman, J. (1993) ‘The P Is Silent — as in Archaeology’, Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 12(1), 39–53.Google Scholar
  9. Childe, V. G. (1954) What Happened in History (Harmondsworth: Penguin).Google Scholar
  10. Clark, G. (1983) The Identity of Man (London: Methuen).Google Scholar
  11. Clark, K. (2002) ‘Hard Times’, Conservation Bulletin, 37, 37–8.Google Scholar
  12. Cleere, H. F. (1984a) ‘World Cultural Resources Management: Problems and Perspectives’ in H. F. Cleere (ed.) Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 125–31.Google Scholar
  13. Cleere, H. F. (1984b) ‘Great Britain’ in H. F. Cleere (ed.) Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 54–62.Google Scholar
  14. Cleere, H. F. (1989) ‘Introduction: the Rationale of Archaeological Heritage Management’ in H. F. Cleere (ed.) Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World (London: Unwin Hyman), pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  15. Corbishley, M. (2011) Pinning Down the Past: Archaeology, Heritage and Education Today (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press).Google Scholar
  16. Daniel, G. (1981) A Short History of Archaeology (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
  17. De la Torre, M. and MacLean, M. (1997) ‘The Archaeological Heritage in the Mediterranean Region’ in M. de la Torre (ed.) The Conservation of Archaeological Sites in the Mediterranean Region (Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute), pp. 5–14.Google Scholar
  18. Dobby, A. (1978) Conservation and Planning (London: Hutchinson).Google Scholar
  19. Emerick, K. (2003) From Frozen Monuments to Fluid Landscapes: The Conservation and Preservation of Ancient Monuments from 1882 to the Present, Unpublished PhD thesis (University of York).Google Scholar
  20. Feilden, B. (1982) Conservation of Historic Buildings (London: Butterworths).Google Scholar
  21. Gathercole, P. and Lowenthal, D. (1990) The Politics of the Past (London: Unwin Hyman).Google Scholar
  22. Greene, K. (2002) Archaeology: An Introduction; The History, Principles and Methods of Modern Archaeology (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  23. Henson, D., Stone, P. and Corbishley, M. (2004) Education and the Historic Environment (London and New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  24. Hodder, I. (1982) Symbols in Action: Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  25. Hodder, I. (1984) ‘History vs. Science: No Contest. Review of L.R. Binford 1983 In Pursuit the Past (Thames and Hudson) and J. G. D. Clark 1983 The Identity of Man (Methuen)’, Scottish Archaeological Review, 3, 66–8.Google Scholar
  26. Hodder, I. (1989) ‘This Is Not an Article About Material Culture as Text’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 8, 250–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hodder, I. (1991a) ‘To Interpret Is to Act: The Need for an Interpretive Archaeology’, Scottish Archaeological Review, 8, 8–13.Google Scholar
  28. Hodder, I. (1991b) ‘Interpretive Archaeology and Its Role’, American Antiquity, 56(1), 7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hodder, I. (1991c) ‘Postprocessual Archaeology and the Current Debate’ in R. W. Preucel (ed.) Processual and Postprocessual Archaeologies: Multiple Ways of Knowing the Past (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press), pp. 30–41.Google Scholar
  30. Hodder, I. (1993) ‘Changing Configurations: the Relationships between Theory and Practice’ in J. Hunter and I. Ralston (eds) Archaeological Resource Management in the UK: An Introduction (Washington: Alan Sutton), pp. 11–18.Google Scholar
  31. Hodder, I. and Doughty, L. (2007) Mediterranean Prehistoric Heritage: Training, Education and Management (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research).Google Scholar
  32. Hodder, I. and Hutson, S. (2003) Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hudson, K. (1981) A Social History of Archaeology: The British Experience (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Infranco, G. (1998) Archaeological Conservation (Amman: Al-Dustur Commercial Printing Press).Google Scholar
  35. Jameson, J. H. (2004) ‘Public Archaeology in the United States’ in N. Merriman (ed.) Public Archaeology (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 21–58.Google Scholar
  36. Jokilehto, J. (1999) A History of Architectural Conservation (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann).Google Scholar
  37. Kersel, M. (2012) ‘The Value of a Looted Object: Stakeholder Perceptions in the Antiquities Trade’ in R. Skeates, C. McDavid and J. Carman (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Public Archaeology (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 253–72.Google Scholar
  38. Killebrew, A. and Lehmann, G. (1999) ‘Interpreting the Past’, Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 3(1&2), 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. King, T. F., Hickman, P. P. and Berg, G. (1977) Anthropology in Historic Preservation: Caring for Culture’s Clutter (London: Academic Press).Google Scholar
  40. Kohl, C. and Fawcett, P. (1995) Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  41. Larsen, M. T. (1989) ‘Orientalism and Near Eastern Archaeology’ in D. Miller, M. Rowlands and C. Tilly (eds) Domination and Resistance (London: Unwin Hyman), pp. 229–39.Google Scholar
  42. Layton, R. (1989) Who Needs the Past? Indigenous Values and Archaeology (London: Unwin Hyman).Google Scholar
  43. Le Duc, V. (1996) ‘Restoration’ in N. S. Price, M. K. Talley Jr and A. M. Vaccaro (eds) Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage (Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute), pp. 314–18.Google Scholar
  44. Lipe, W. D. (1984) ‘Value and Meaning in Cultural Resources’ in H. F. Cleere (ed.) Approaches to Archaeological Heritage: A Comparative Study of World Cultural Resources Management Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  45. Mason, R. (2002) ‘Assessing Values in Conservation Planning: Methodological Issues and Choices’ in de la Torre, M. and R. Mason (eds) Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage (Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute), pp. 5–30.Google Scholar
  46. Mattingly, D. J. (1996) ‘From One Colonialism to Another: Imperialism and the Maghreb’ in J. Webster and N. Cooper (eds) Roman Imperialism: Post-colonial Perspectives (Leicester: Leicester University Press), pp. 49–69.Google Scholar
  47. McGimsey, C. R. (1972) Public Archaeology (New York: Seminar Books).Google Scholar
  48. McGimsey, C. R. and Davis, H. A. (1984) ‘United States of America’ in H. F. Cleere (ed.) Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 116–24.Google Scholar
  49. Merriman, N. (2004) Public Archaeology (London and New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  50. Moshenska, G. and Dhanjal, S. (2012) Community Archaeology: Themes, Methods and Practice (Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books).Google Scholar
  51. Murtagh, W. (1988) Keeping Time: the History and Theory of Preservation in America (New York: Main Street Press).Google Scholar
  52. Okamura, K. and Matsuda, A. (2011) New Perspectives in Global Public Archaeology (London: Springer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pharr, C. (1952) The Theodosian Code and Novels and the Sirmondian Constitutions, a Translation with a Commentary, Glossary and Bibliography (in collaboration with Theresa S. Davidson and Mary B. Pharr) (New York: Green Press).Google Scholar
  54. Philippot, P. (1976) Historic Preservation: Philosophy, Criteria, Guidelines, in Preservation and Conservation: Principles and Practices. Proceedings of the North American International Regional Conference, Williamsburg: Philadelphia. 10–12 September 1972 (Washington: National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States), pp. 367–82.Google Scholar
  55. Renfrew, C. (1994) ‘Towards a Cognitive Archaeology’ in C. Renfrew and E. B. W. Zubrow (eds) The Ancient Mind: Elements of Cognitive Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Renfrew, C. (2001) ‘Symbol before Concept: Material Engagement and the Early Development of Society’ in I. Hodder (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today (Cambridge: Polity Press), pp. 122–40.Google Scholar
  57. Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. (2000) Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice, 3rd edn (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
  58. Rush, L. (2010) Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press).Google Scholar
  59. Ruskin, J. (1849) Seven Lamps in Architecture (London: Smith Elder).Google Scholar
  60. Ruskin, J. (1908) Our Fathers Told Us: The Bible of Amiens (London: Longmans, Green and Co.).Google Scholar
  61. Ruskin, J. (1996) ‘The Lamp of Memory II’ in N. Price, M. Talley and A. Vaccaro (eds) Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage (Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute), pp. 322–23.Google Scholar
  62. Seeden, H. (1994) ‘Archaeology and the Public in Lebanon: Development since 1986’ in P. G. Stone and B. L. Molyneaux (eds) The Presented Past (London: Routledge), pp. 95–108.Google Scholar
  63. Skeates, R., McDavid, C. and Carman, J. (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Public Archaeology (Oxford: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith, L. (1993) ‘Towards a Theoretical Framework for Archaeological Heritage Management’, Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 12(1), 55–75.Google Scholar
  65. Smith, L. (1994) ‘Heritage Management as Postprocessual Archaeology?’ Antiquity, 68, 300–09.Google Scholar
  66. Smith, L. (2004) Archaeological Theory and the Politics of Cultural Heritage (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stone, P. G. (2011) Cultural Heritage, Ethics, and the Military (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press).Google Scholar
  68. Stone, P. G. and MacKenzie, R. (1990) The Excluded Past: Archaeology in Education (London: Unwin Hyman Ltd).Google Scholar
  69. Sullivan, S. (1997) ‘A Planning Model for the Management of Archaeological Sites’ in M. de la Torre (ed.) The Conservation of Archaeological Sites in the Mediterranean Region (Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute), pp. 15–26.Google Scholar
  70. Tainter, J. A. and Lucas, J. (1983) ‘Epistemology of the Significance Concept’, Antiquity, 48(4), 707–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Thomas, S. and Stone, P. (2009) Metal Detecting and Archaeology (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press).Google Scholar
  72. Tilden, E (1977) Interpreting Our Heritage (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press).Google Scholar
  73. Trigger, B. G. (1978) Time and Traditions: Essays in Archaeological Interpretation (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).Google Scholar
  74. Trigger, B. G. (1981) ‘Anglo-American Archaeology’, World Archaeology, 13(2), 138–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Trigger, B. G. (1984) ‘Alternative Archaeology: Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist’, Man, 19(3), 355–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Trigger, B. G. (1989) A History of Archaeological Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  77. Trigger, B. G. and Glover, I. (1981) ‘Editorial’, World Archaeology, 13(2), 133–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ucko, P. J. (1989) ‘Foreword’ in S. Shennan (ed.) Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity (London: Unwin Hyman), pp. ix–xx.Google Scholar
  79. UNESCO (1972) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, http://whc.unesco.org/archive/convention-en.pdf, accessed 20 January 2006.Google Scholar
  80. UNESCO (1986) Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies, adopted by the World Conference on Cultural Policies, 26 July–6 August 1982, Mexico City, http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=12762&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&ampURL_SECTION=201.html, accessed 10th October 2014.Google Scholar
  81. Vitruvius, V. (1995) On Architecture (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  82. Waterton, E. and Smith, L. (2010) ‘The Recognition and Misrecognition of Community Heritage’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16(1–2), 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Waterton, E. and Watson, S. (eds) (2011) Heritage and Community Engagement: Collaboration or Contestation (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  84. Wengrow, D. (2006) ‘The Idea of Prehistory in the Middle East’ in R. Layton, S. Shennan and P. G. Stone (eds) A Future for Archaeology: The Past in the Present (London: UCL press), pp. 187–97.Google Scholar
  85. Weyeneth, R. (1995) Historic Preservation and Civil Rights Movement: Identifying, Preserving, and Interpreting the Architecture of Liberation (Columbia: University of South California).Google Scholar
  86. White, L. A. (1975) The Concept of Cultural Systems: A Key to Understanding Tribes and Nations (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  87. Willems, W. J. H. (2002) ‘The Role of Archaeological Societies in Preserving Cultural Memorials’, Archaeology, II, http://www.google.jo/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=OCCAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.eolss.net%2FSample-Chapters%2FC04%2FE6–21-04–01.pdf&ei=bNw3VNvCLYrMOMWggfgI&usg=AFQjCNFEVgZDw-jtO2kW3vJu50cquTA8CQ&sig2=H_T8XDL1FSyUC2thBq1dCQ&bvm=bv.77161500,d.ZWU.

Copyright information

© Shatha Abu Khafajah and Arwa Badran 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shatha Abu Khafajah
  • Arwa Badran

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations