The European Union (EU) subsidiary principle of devolved power demands a difficult balancing of a multiplicity of identities, while immigration flows bring new diversity to Member States that challenge the creation and maintenance of national identities. Migration, with women having a special role in it, is regarded as a means to meet major problems of the developed, but ageing, western European societies; yet it also poses a serious threat to the various social models, which fail to integrate, or even exclude, immigrants from mainstream society. Thus, contemporary European political discourses on integration policy seem torn between international commitments to accept immigrants and refugees, and a public opinion unwilling to grant welfare benefits or rights to them. Although gender mainstreaming was endorsed as the official policy approach to gender equality in the EU and its Member States in the 1997 Amsterdam Treaty, there is much criticism when it comes to gender issues as well. The non-binding formulation of European soft laws created uncertainties and confusion, and as such there is nothing to force Member States to act on them.
- European Union
- Political Party
- Gender Equality
- Gender Issue
- Civil Society Actor
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Sata, R. (2013). Multicultural Dialogues: Diversity, Gender and Immigration in the European Public Sphere. In: Siim, B., Mokre, M. (eds) Negotiating Gender and Diversity in an Emergent European Public Sphere. Gender and Politics Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137291295_6
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