Gender, Populism and Politics of Belonging: Discourses of Right-Wing Populist Parties in Denmark, Norway and Austria

  • Susi Meret
  • Birte Siim
Part of the Gender and Politics Series book series (GAP)

Abstract

The meaning of gender equality, women’s rights and family values is contested within and across nation states as well as influenced by a variety of national histories, institutional and cultural contexts, including the European Union (EU). Results from the Eurosphere project1 have emphasised that right-wing populist parties in western Europe combine a strong anti-immigrant profile with a strong euro-scepticism emphasising national values, historical traditions and institutions. The representatives of these parties claim that non-Europeans and Muslims present a threat to national identity, social cohesion and to women’s rights in society. The project’s findings raise general questions about the relationship between gender equality, ethno-national diversity and national belongings in western Europe.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akkerman, T. and A. Hagelund (2007). ‘“Women and Children First!” Anti-Immigration Parties and Gender in Norway and the Netherlands’, Patterns of Prejudice 41 (2): 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alesina, A. and E. L. Glaeser (2004). Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe. A World of Difference. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreassen, R. and D. Lettinga (2012). ‘Veiled debates: Gender and gender equality in European national narratives’ in Rosenberger and Sauer (eds.) 2012. Politics, Religion and Gender. Framing and Regulating the Veil. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Art, D. (2011). Inside the Radical Right. The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Betz Hans-Georg (1994). Radical right populism in Western Europe, Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Betz, H-G. and C. Johnson (2004). ‘Against the Current–Stemming the Tide: the Nostalgic Ideology of the Contemporary Radical Populist Right’, Journal of Political Ideologies 9 (3): 311–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Betz, H-G. and S. Meret (2009). ‘Revisiting Lepanto: The Political Mobilisation against Islam in Contemporary Western Europe’, Patterns of Prejudice 43 (3–4): 313–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjørklund, T. (2009). ‘To mål på arbeiderklasse: Yrke og klassetilhørighet Norske velgere og partier fra 1965 til 2005’, Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift 1: 5–30.Google Scholar
  9. Bjørklund, T. (2011). ‘The Radical Right in Norway. The Development of the Progress Party’ in N. Lagenbacher and B. Schellenberg (eds) Is Europe on the ‘Right’ Path. Berlin: The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, pp. 271–94. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/do/08338.pdf, accessed 18 March 2012.Google Scholar
  10. Bornschier, S. (2010). Cleavage and the Populist Right. The New Cultural Conflicts in Western Europe. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Danish Electoral Survey (2011). Own calculations.Google Scholar
  12. Dansk Folkeparti (DF) (1997). Principprogram. København: Nyhavns Tryk og Kopi Center.Google Scholar
  13. Dansk Folkeparti (DF) (2001a). Fcelles vcerdier -– Fcelles ansvar. Arbejdsprogram for Dansk Folkeparti. København.Google Scholar
  14. Dansk Folkepartis Folketingsgruppe (DF) (2001b). Danmarks Fremtid. Dit land–Dit valg… København: Form and Tryk ApS.Google Scholar
  15. Dansk Folkeparti (DF) (2007). Fcelles vcerdier–Fcelles ansvar. Arbejdsprogram.Google Scholar
  16. Dansk Folkeparti (DF) (2009). Fcelles vcerdier–Fcelles ansvar. Arbejdsprogram, http://www.danskfolkeparti.dk/Indledning.asp,accessed 18 March 2012.Google Scholar
  17. Dansk Folkepartis Folketingsgruppe (2001). Danmarks Fremtid. Dit Land–Dit Valg… København: Form and tryk ApS.Google Scholar
  18. Dokument nr. 8: 93 (2003–4). Privat forslag fra stortingsrepresentanterne Carl I. Hagen, Per Sandberg, Arne Sortevik og Karin S. Woldseth om tiltak for å fremme integrering.Google Scholar
  19. Eatwell R. (2002). ‘The Rebirth of Right Wing Charisma? The Cases of Jean-Marie Le Pen and Vladimir Zhirinovsky’, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. London: Frank Cass, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  20. FPÖ (1997). ‘Platform of the Austrian Freedom Party’ in: S. A. Melanie (ed.) The Haider Phenomenon, New York: East European Monographs, pp. 44–9.Google Scholar
  21. Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) (1997). Programm der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (English printed edition). Vienna.Google Scholar
  22. Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) (2005). Das Parteiprogramm der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs. Mit Berücksichtigung der beschlossenen Änderungen vom 27. Ordentlichen Bundesparteitag der FPÖ. Salzburg 23 April.Google Scholar
  23. Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) (2008). Handbuch freiheitlicher Politik. Ein Leitfaden für Führungsfunktionäre und Mandatsträger der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs, 1. Auslage. Vienna.Google Scholar
  24. Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) (2011). Parteiprogramm der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (FPÖ), Österreich Zuerst, Beschlossen von Bundesparteistag der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs am 18. Juni 2011 in Graz.Google Scholar
  25. Fremskritt (2011). ‘Innvandring og eldrebølge’, no. 11/37, 12, 4 June. Fremskritt (2011). ‘Vi står sammen i sorgen’, no. 14/37, 3, 30 July. Fremskrittspartiet. Prinsipp- og handlingsprogram 1985–9.Google Scholar
  26. Fremskrittspartiet. Fremskrittspartiets Prinsipp- og handlingsprogram 2005–9. Fremskrittspartiet. Fremskrittspartiets handlingsprogram 2009–13. http://www.frp.no/no/Vi_mener/Handlingsprogram_2009–2013/, accessed 30 November 2012.
  27. Fremskrittspartiet. Fremskrittspartiets Prinsipper 2009–13.Google Scholar
  28. Fremskrittspartiet. Fremskrittspartiets Handlings -program 2009–13.Google Scholar
  29. FrP’s Annual Meeting (2009). Siv Jensen’s speech at the party annual meeting. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyzUjAiYAhsandfeature=relmhfu, accessed 30 September 2012.Google Scholar
  30. Givens, T. E. (2004). ‘The Radical Right Gender Gap’, Comparative Political Studies 37 (1): 30–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Givens, T. E. (2005). Voting Radical Right in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goul Andersen, J. and T. Bjørklund (2000). ‘Radical Right-Wing Populism in Scandinavia: From Tax Revolt to Neo-liberalism’ in P. Hainsworth (ed.) The Politics of the Extreme Right. London: Pinter, pp. 193–223.Google Scholar
  33. Goul Andersen, J. (2004). ‘Danmark: Fremskridtspartiet og Dansk Folkeparti’ in J. Rydgren and A. Widfeldt (eds) Från Le Pen till Pim Fortuyn–Populism och Parlamentarisk Högerextremism i Dagens Europa. Malmö: Liber.Google Scholar
  34. Hainsworth, P. (ed.) (2000). The Politics of the Extreme Right. From the Margins to the Mainstream. London and New York: Pinter.Google Scholar
  35. Jensen, S. (2007). ‘Norske feminister er navlebeskuende’, quoted in: Aftenposten, 8 March 2007. http://www.aftenposten.no/debatt/Norske-feminister-ernavlebeskuende-6610707.html, accessed 30 September 2012.Google Scholar
  36. Kjærsgaard Pia (2008). ‘Domstolene skal holdes fri fra politik og religion’, in Pia Kjærsgaards ugebrev 28 April 2008. http://www.danskfolkeparti.dk/Domstolene_skal_holdes_fri_fra_politik_og_religion.asp,accessed 30 September 2012.Google Scholar
  37. Kitschelt, H. and A. J. McGann (1995). The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  38. Kriesi, H., E. Grande, R. Lachat, M. Dolezal, S. Bornschier and T. Frey (2008). West European Politics in the Age of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meret, S. (2010). The Danish People’s Party, the Italian Northern League and the Austrian Freedom Party in a Comparative Perspective: Party Ideology and Electoral Support, SPIRIT PhD series. Aalborg: Aalborg University.Google Scholar
  40. Meret, S. (2011). ‘From the Margins to the Mainstream? The Development of the Radical Right in Denmark’ in N. Lagenbacher and B. Schellenberg (eds) Is Europe on the ‘Right’ Path. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, pp. 243–66. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/do/08338.pdf, accessed 18 March 2012.Google Scholar
  41. Mokre, M. (2010). Diversity and the European Public Sphere. The Case of Austria. Online country Report No. 2: http://eurospheres.org/files/2010/06/Austria. pdf.Google Scholar
  42. Mudde, C. (2000). The Ideology of the Extreme Right. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Mudde, C. (2007). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Norocel, C. (2010). ‘Romania is a Family and it Needs a Strict Father: Conceptual Metaphors at Work in Radical Right Populist Discourses’, Nationalities Papers 38 (5): 705–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Norris, P. (2005). Radical-Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ôzkirimli, U. (2005). Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Pedahzur, A. and B. Avraham (2002). ‘The Institutionalisation of Extreme Right Wing Charismatic Parties’, Party Politics 8 (1): 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rosenberger, S. and B. Sauer (eds) (2012). Politics, Religion and Gender. Framing and Regulating the Veil. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Rydgren, J. (2005). ‘Is Extreme Right-wing Populism Contagious? Explaining the Emergence of a New Party Family’, European Journal of Political Research 44: 413–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rydgren, J. (ed.) (2012). ‘Right Wing Populism and the Working Class’. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Schain M., A. Zolberg and P. Hossay (2002). Shadows over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sicakkan, H. (2010). ‘Diversity and the European Public Sphere. The Case of Norway’. Online country Report No. 1, 2010. http://eurosphere.uib.no/knowledgebase/workingpapers.htmGoogle Scholar
  53. Siim, B. and H. Skjeie (2008). ‘Tracks, Intersections and Dead Ends. Multicultural Challenges to State Feminism in Denmark and Norway’, Ethnicities 8 (3): 322–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wodak, R. and A. Pelinka (eds) (2002). The Haider Phenomenon in Austria. New Brunswick/New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Yuval-Davis, N. (1997). Gender and Nation. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  56. Yuval-Davis, N. (2011). The Politics of Belonging: Intersectional Contestations. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Susi Meret Birte Siim 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susi Meret
  • Birte Siim

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations