History and Responsibility: On the Debates on the Shōwa History

  • Naoki Sakai
Part of the Mass Dictatorship in the 20th Century book series (MASSD)


I asked myself: How many times do I have to explain that it is not kokka shakai-shugi (Socialism of the State) but kokumin shakai-shugi (Socialism of the Nation) that is the proper and more appropriate rendering of National Socialism?


Ruling Class Legal Responsibility National Humanism Historical Responsibility Japanese State 
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  1. 2.
    Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Ralph Manheim trans. (New York: The Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999), p. 393.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Such an attempt can be found in Yasushi Yamanouchi, J. Victor Koschmann and Ryflichi Narita (eds), Total War and ‘Modernisation’ (Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Program, 1998).Google Scholar

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© Naoki Sakai 2014

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  • Naoki Sakai

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