H. Strachan, The Politics of the British Army (Oxford, 1997), pp. 7–8.
G. Mosca, The Ruling Class: Elementi di Scienza Politica, edited by A. Livingston (London, 1939), p. 233;
S. P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Practice of Civil-Military Relations (Cambridge, Mass., 1957);
M. Howard, ‘The Armed Forces as a Political Problem’, in M. Howard (ed.), Soldiers and Governments: Nine Studies in Civil-Military Relations (London, 1957), p. 21;
J. van Doorn, ‘Armed Forces and Society: Patterns and Trends’, in J. van Doorn (ed.), Armed Forces and Society: Sociological Essays (Paris, 1968), pp. 39–50; M. D. Feld, ‘Professionalism, Nationalism, and the Alienation of the Military’, in Armed Forces and Society, pp. 55–69; C. B. Otley, ‘Militarism and the Social Affiliations of the British Army Elite’, in Armed Forces and Society, pp. 87–108;
W. S. Hamer, The British Army: Civil-Military Relations, 1885–1905 (Oxford, 1970), p. 14–7;
S. E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics (London, 1976), pp. 20–8;
G. Harries-Jenkins, The Army in Victorian Society (London, 1977), pp. 216–7; Spiers, The Army and Society, pp. 8–26.
G. A. Craig, The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640–1945 (Oxford, 1955), pp. 136–79, 217–54;
G. Ritter, The Sword and the Sceptre: The Problem of Militarism in Germany, trans. H. Norden (4 vols, London, 1972–3), i, pp. 121–85; ii, pp. 119–36;
C. Clark, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (London, 2007), pp. 603–4; Stargardt, German Idea of Militarism, p. 5.
E. M. Spiers, The Late Victorian Army, 1868–1902 (Manchester, 1992), pp. 16–7, 74, 168–75; Hamer, The British Army, pp. 255–63.
J. Fergusson, The Curragh Incident (London, 1964);
E. A. Muenger, The British Military Dilemma in Ireland: Occupation Politics, 1886–1914 (Kansas, 1991), pp. 164–200;
I. F. W. Beckett, The Army and the Curragh Incident, 1914 (London, 1986); Strachan, Politics of the British Army, pp. 112–17.
G. Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England (London, 1936; 2001), pp. 277, 279.
S. E. Koss, John Morley at the India Office, 1905–1910 (New Haven, 1969), pp. 111, 118.
P. M. Magnus, Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist (London, 1958), pp. 230–1.
W. S. Blunt, Atrocities of Justice under British Rule in Egypt (London, 1906).
E. Grey, Twenty-Five Years, 1892–1916 (2 vols, London, 1925), i, p. 138.
H. N. Brailsford, The War of Steel and Gold: A Study of the Armed Peace (London, 1914), p. 140. Brailsford himself joined the Independent Labour Party in 1907 in protest against the Liberal government’s handling of the Denshawai affair.
Ritter, The Sword and the Sceptre, ii, pp. 134–6; V. R. Berghahn, Imperial Germany, 1871–1918: Economy, Society, Culture and Politics, revised and expanded edn (Oxford, 2005), pp. 252–4.
G. B. Shaw, John Bull’s Other Island (London, 1907), pp. xliv, xlvii.
W. S. Gilbert and A. Sullivan, HMS Pinafore; or, the Lass that Loved a Sailor: An Entirely Original Nautical Comic Opera in Two Acts (London, 1878), pp. 10–11; Utopia (Limited), or The Flowers of Progress, (London, 1893), p. 51.
W. Archer, Real Conversations, Recorded by William Archer (London, 1904), p. 160.
F. A. Johnson, Defence by Committee: The British Committee of Imperial Defence, 1885–1959 (London, 1960).
Reginald Viscount Esher, The Committee of Imperial Defence: Its Functions and Potentialities (London, 1912), pp. 17–20.
A. J. Balfour, Imperial Defence (London, 1905), pp. 3–4.
J. Gooch, ‘“A Peculiarly Anglo-Saxon Institution”: The British General Staff in the Era of Two World Wars’, in D. French and B. H. Reid, eds The British General Staff: Reform and Innovation, c.1890–1939 (London, 2002), pp. 193–9.
L. C. M. S. Amery, The Problem of the Army (London, 1903), pp. 130, 291.
J. A. Spender, Life, Journalism and Politics (2 vols, London, 1927), i, pp. 195–6.
C. W. Dilke, Problems of Greater Britain, (2 vols, London, 1890), ii, pp. 560–4.
C. W. Dilke and H. S. Wilkinson, Imperial Defence (London, 1892), pp. 203–27;
D. Nicholls, The Lost Prime Minister: A Life of Sir Charles Dilke (London, 1995), p. 269.
G. R. Searle, The Quest for National Efficiency: A Study in British Politics and Political Thought, 1899–1914 (Oxford, 1971), pp. 228–32.
R. B. Haldane, Richard Burdon Haldane: An Autobiography (London, 1929), pp. 234–5.
R. B. Haldane, Army Reform and other addresses (London, 1907), pp. 95–7.
W. L. Guttsman, The British Political Elite (London, 1963), p. 90.
M. Stenton and S. Lees (eds), Who’s Who of British Members of Parliament: A Biographical Dictionary of the House of Commons based on annual volumes of Dod’s Parliamentary Companion and other sources (4 vols, Sussex, 1976–81), ii, p. 310.
A. G. Gardiner, Prophets, Priests and Kings (London, 1908), p. 108. Churchill described his own experiences in Cuba in My Early Life: A Roving Commission (London, 1930).
A. N. Wilson, Hilaire Belloc (London, 1984), pp. 41–5.
Ibid., ii, p. 211; L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884–1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages with Genealogies and Arms (London, 1972), p. 113.
Even by the late 1930s, senior officers could be found wondering ‘whether the Army was a purely professional affair, or whether it might not be regarded … as a series of clubs’. See D. French, Military Identities: The Regimental System, the British Army, and the British People, c. 1870–2000 (Oxford, 2005), p. 145.
V. de Bunsen, Charles Roden Buxton: A Memoir (London, 1948), pp. 51–2.
J. Grigg, The Young Lloyd George (London, 1973), p. 44.
M. Swartz, The Union of Democratic Control in British Politics during the First World War (Oxford, 1971), pp. 30, 79–80.