B. Farwell, Queen Victoria’s Little Wars (London, 1973), p. 1.
J. Richards, ‘Popular Imperialism and the Image of the Army in Juvenile Literature’, in J. M. MacKenzie (ed.), Popular Imperialism and the Military (Manchester, 1992), pp. 80–108.
A wealth of historical literature now exists on Edwardian perceptions and representations of war. See, for example, S. Hynes, The Edwardian Turn of Mind (London, 1968), pp. 34–53;
P. Knightly, The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist, and Myth Maker (London, 1978);
A. J. A. Morris, The Scaremongers: The Advocacy of War and Rearmament 1896–1914 (London, 1984);
I. F. Clarke, Voices Prophesying War: Future Wars, 1763–3749, 2nd edn (Oxford, 1992); R. T. Stearn, ‘War Correspondents and Colonial War, c. 1870–1900’, in Popular Imperialism and the Military, p. 150.
G. P. Gooch, ‘Imperialism’, in C. F. G. Masterman (ed.), The Heart of the Empire: Discussions of Problems of Modern City Life in England, with an essay on Imperialism (London, 1901), p. 338.
F. Eyck, G. P. Gooch: A Study in History and Politics (London, 1982), p. 138.
M. Ceadel, ‘Gladstone and a Liberal Theory of International Relations’, in P. Ghosh and L. Goldman (eds), Politics and Culture in Victorian Britain: Essays in Memory of Colin Matthew (Oxford, 2006), pp. 77–86.
W. S. Blunt, My Diaries: Being a Personal Narrative of Events, 1888–1914 (2 vols, London, 1919), ii, pp. 144–9, 457. Blunt was a rather unorthodox Tory democrat in his domestic politics, but was an inveterate critic of British imperialism.
J. A. Cramb, England and Germany (London, 1914), pp. 43, 53.
J. St Loe Strachey, A New Way of Life (London, 1909), p. 46;
J. Gooch, The Prospect of War: Studies in British Defence Policy, 1847–1942 (London, 1981), pp. 41–3.
B. Semmel, Imperialism and Social Reform: English Social-Imperial Thought, 1895–1914 (London, 1960), p. 41.
J. A. Cramb, Reflections on the Origins and Destiny of Imperial Britain (London, 1915), pp. 129–30, 139, (my italics).
D. Newsome, Godliness and Good Learning: Four Studies on a Victorian Ideal (London, 1988), pp. 195–8;
C. Nelson, ‘Sex and the Single Boy: Ideals of Manliness and Sexuality in Victorian Literature for Boys’, Victorian Studies, vol. 32, no. 4 (1989), pp. 525–50;
J. Tosh, ‘Gentlemanly Politeness and Manly Simplicity in Victorian England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, vol. 12 (2002), pp. 455–72.
N. Vance, The Sinews of the Spirit: the Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 17–26;
M. Paris, Warrior Nation: Images of War in British Popular Culture, 1850–2000 (London, 2000), p. 23.
See, for example, G. Best, ‘Militarism and the Victorian Public School’, in B. Simon and I. Bradley (eds), The Victorian Public School: Studies in the Development of an Educational Institution, a Symposium (Dublin, 1975), pp. 129–46;
A. Penn, Targeting Schools: Drill, Militarism and Imperialism (London, 1999); Newsome, Godliness and Good Learning, pp. 200–1.
F. Paulsen, The German Universities: Their Character and Historical Development, trans. E. D. Perry (London, 1895), p. 197.
For a discussion of the decline in the popularity of duelling in Britain during the nineteenth century, see S. Banks. Paulsen, The German Universities: Their Character and Historical Development, trans. E. D. Perry (London, 1895), p. 197.
For a discussion of the decline in the popularity of duelling in Britain during the nineteenth century, see S. Banks, ‘Killing with Courtesy: The English Duellist, 1785–1845’, Journal of British Studies, vol. 47, no. 3 (2008), pp. 528–58.
L. Knowles, A Day with Corps-Students in Germany (London, 1913), pp. 16, 46–7.
See, for example, G. Ferrero, Militarism (London, 1902), p. 281;
A. F. Sieveking, ‘Dueling and Militarism’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 3rd ser., vol. 11 (1917), pp. 165–84.
W. E. Schmidt, ‘Nationale Jugend’, Preussische Jahrbuecher, 112 (May, 1903), pp. 226–48, at 229–30. Schmidt taught at an international Protestant school in the small town of Koenigsfeld in the Black Forest from 1896–1902.
J. Erickson and H. Mommsen, ‘Militarism’, in C. D. Kernig (ed.) Marxism, Communism and Western Society: A Comparative Encyclopaedia (New York, 1972), pp. 440–1.
Anderson, ‘The Growth of Christian Militarism’, pp. 46–72; K. E. Hendrickson, Making Saints: Religion and the Public Image of the British Army, 1809–1885 (London, 1998);
J. R. Watson, ‘Soldiers and Saints: the Fighting Man and the Christian Life’, in A. Bradstock, S. Gill, A. Hogan, and S. Morgan (eds), Masculinity and Spirituality in Victorian Culture (Basingstoke, 2000), pp. 10–26.
J. W. M. Hichberger, Images of the Army: The Military in British Art, 1815–1914 (Manchester, 1988), pp. 59–74;
R. T. Stearn, ‘“To Rid the Country of a Scandal”: The Uniforms Act of 1894’, Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 71 (1993), pp. 227–31; D. Russell, ‘“We Carved Our Way to Glory”: The British Soldier in Music Hall Song and Sketch, c.1880–1914’, in Popular Imperialism and the Military, pp. 50–79; Richards, ‘Popular Imperialism and the Image of the Army’, pp. 80–106; Paris, Warrior Nation, pp. 7–109.
Hansard, 3rd series, 1891, cccl, 1143; Harries-Jenkins, The Army in Victorian Society, pp. 5–7; E. M. Spiers, The Army and Society , 1815–1914 (London, 1980), pp. 49–51, 67; French, Military Identities, pp. 232–4, 248.
H. O. Arnold-Forster, The Army in 1906, a Policy and a Vindication (London, 1906), p. 145.
I. F. W. Beckett, Riflemen Form: A Study of the Rifle Volunteer Movement, 1859–1908 (Aldershot, 1982), pp. 39–89. The yeomanry, the last element in the Victorian auxiliary forces, was a mounted force which tended to recruit from rural and farming communities.
R. Edmondson, John Bull’s Army from Within (London, 1907), p. 3.
R. Palmer (ed.), The Rambling Soldier: Life in the Lower Ranks, 1750–1900 (Gloucester, 1985), p. 12.
T. von Sosnosky, England’s Danger: The Future of British Army Reform, trans. M. Sinclair, (London, 1901), p. 80.
A. L. Rowse, Quiller-Couch: A Portrait of ‘Q’ (London, 1988), pp. 9, 80–1, 93.
A. T. Quiller-Couch, Corporal Sam and other Short Stories (London, 1910), p. 29.
G. B. Shaw, Plays: Pleasant and Unpleasant. The Second Volume, containing the Four Pleasant Plays (London, 1898), p. 15.
A. E. W. Mason, Clementina (London, 1901).
A. E. W. Mason, The Four Feathers (London, 1902), pp. 15, 141, 144, 149.
B. Worden, Roundhead Reputations: The English Civil Wars and the Passions of Posterity (London, 2001), pp. 243–63.
P. Addison, Churchill on the Home Front, 1900–1955 (London, 1992), p. 155; Worden, Roundhead Reputations, pp. 296–315.
D. Cannadine, G. M. Trevelyan: A Life in History (London, 1992), pp. 31, 112–3, 223.
D. Beales, ‘rn’, in P. J. Jagger (ed.), Gladstone (London, 1998), pp. 137–56.
G. M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi and the Thousand (London, 1909), p. 122.
G. M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi’s Defence of the Roman Republic (London, 1907), p. 379; Garibaldi and the Thousand, p. 383;
G. M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi and the Making of Italy (London, 1911), p. 380.
A. T. Quiller-Couch, The Roll Call of Honour: A New Book of Golden Deeds (London, 1911), pp. 9–13.
G. O. Trevelyan, The American Revolution (6 vols, London, 1899–1914), i, pp. 259–60.
W. Kent, John Burns: Labour’s Lost Leader (London, 1950), pp. 128, 199, 225, 270.
E. Stokes, ‘Milnerism’, Historical Journal, vol. 5, no. 1 (1962), pp. 47–60;
J. O. Baylen, ‘W. T. Stead’s History of the Mystery and the Jameson Raid’, Journal of British Studies, vol. 4, no. 1. (1964), pp. 104–32;
A. Porter, ‘The South African War, 1899–1902: Context and Motive Reconsidered’, Journal of African History, vol. 31, no. 1 (1990), pp. 43–57.
J. Wilson, C. B.: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London, 1973), pp. 349–51.
A. R. Fry, Emily Hobhouse: A Memoir (London, 1929), p. 120.
K. O. Morgan, ‘The Boer War and the Media, 1899–1902’, Twentieth Century British History, vol. 13, no. 1 (2002), pp. 1–16.
R. Blatchford, My Eighty Years (London, 1931), pp. 85–6, 182–3.
J. Morgan, Conflict and Order: The Police and Labour Disputes in England and Wales 1900–1939 (Oxford, 1987), pp. 37–49.
D. Torr, Tom Mann (London, 1936), p. 42.
C. Tsuzuki, Tom Mann, 1856–1941: The Challenges of Labour (Oxford, 1991), p. 172; Torr, Tom Mann, p. 43.
D. Englander, ‘The National Union of Ex-Servicemen and the Labour Movement, 1918–1920’, History, vol. 76 (1991), p. 25.