While community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) now attracts widespread international attention, its practical implementation frequently falls short of expectations. This paper contributes to emerging critiques by focusing on the implications of intra-community dynamics and ecological heterogeneity. It builds a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of institutions—regularized patterns of behaviour between individuals and groups in society—in mediating environment-society relationships. Grounded in an extended form of entitlements analysis, the framework explores how differently positioned social actors command environmental goods and services that are instrumental to their well-being. Further insights are drawn from analyses of social difference; ‘new’, dynamic ecology; new institutional economics; structuration theory; and landscape history. The theoretical argument is illustrated with case material from India, South Africa and Ghana.
- Social Actor
- Informal Institution
- Social Difference
- Dynamic Ecology
- Resource Priority
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Leach, M., Mearns, R. and Scoones, I. (February 1999) ‘Environmental Entitlements: Dynamics and Institutions in Community-Based Natural Resource Management’, World Development, 27.2: 225–247.
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© 2012 Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited
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Leach, M., Mearns, R., Scoones, I. (2012). Environmental Entitlements: Dynamics and Institutions in Community-Based Natural Resource Management. In: Jolly, R. (eds) Milestones and Turning Points in Development Thinking. IDS Companions to Development. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137271631_16
Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, London
Print ISBN: 978-1-349-34987-6
Online ISBN: 978-1-137-27163-1