Advertisement

Political Leadership in Times of Crisis: Comparing Leader Responses to Financial Turbulence

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Leadership series book series (PSPL)

Abstract

In this chapter we examine how political leaders operate when ‘politics as usual’ is rudely disturbed by major forms of acute adversity. The origins of this adversity can be natural or man-made; they can stem from exogenous sources (accidents or conflicts elsewhere; international terrorists; aggrieved or aggressive neighbours) or from sources within the state (i.e. corruption, fraud, mismanagement, stalemate). What matters from a political leadership perspective is that their consequences — physical, psychological, and political — need to be managed, often under conditions of time pressure, high uncertainty, and collective stress. Politically, crises are episodes whose impact cannot be controlled merely by astute on-the-ground incident management, particularly so when the disruption in question raises widespread doubt about the effectiveness and the legitimacy of incumbent officeholders, existing institutions, established policy paradigms, or even of the political order as a whole (’t Hart 1993).

Keywords

Belief System Political Leadership European Central Bank Global Financial Crisis Crisis Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almond, Gabriel, Flanagan, Scott C. and Mundt, Robert J. (1973) Crisis, Choice and Change (Boston: Little, Brown).Google Scholar
  2. Axelrod, Robert (1976) Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  3. Boin, Arjen, ’t Hart, Paul, McConnell, Allan and Preston, Thomas (2010) ‘Leadership Style, Crisis Response, and Blame Management: The Case of Hurricane Katrina’. Public Administration 88(3): 706–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boin, Arjen, McConnell, Allan and ’t Hart, Paul (2009) ‘Crisis Exploitation: Political and Policy Impacts of Framing Contests’. Journal of European Public Policy 16(1): 81–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boin, Arjen, McConnell, Allan and ’t Hart, Paul (eds) (2008) Governing After Crisis: The Politics of Investigation, Accountability and Learning (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  6. Boin, Arjen and ’t Hart, Paul (2000) ‘Institutional Crises and Reforms in Policy Sectors’. In Wagenaar, Hendrik (ed.), Government Institutions: Effects, Changes and Normative Foundations (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 9–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boin, Arjen, ’t Hart, Paul, Stern, Eric and Sundelius, Bengt (2005) The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership under Pressure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bostdorff, Denise M. (1994) The Presidency and the Rhetoric of Foreign Crisis (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press).Google Scholar
  9. Bovens, Mark, ’t Hart, Paul, Dekker, Sander and Verheuvel, Gerdien (1999) ‘The Politics of Blame Avoidance: Defensive Tactics in a Dutch Crime-Fighting Fiasco’. In Anheier, Helmut K. (ed.), When Things Go Wrong: Organizational Failures and Breakdowns (London: Sage), 123–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brändström, Annika and Kuipers, Sanneke (2003) ‘From “Normal Incidents” to Political Crises: Understanding the Selective Politicization of Policy Failures’. Government and Opposition 38(3): 279–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brecher, Michael (1993) Crises in World Politics: Theory and Reality (Oxford: Pergamon).Google Scholar
  12. Canes-Wrone, Brandice (2006) Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy and the Public (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  13. Curran, James (2004) The Power of Speech: Australian Prime Ministers Defining the National Image (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press).Google Scholar
  14. Edwards, George C. III (2003) On Deaf Ears: The Limits of the Bully Pulpit (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  15. Fearn-Banks, Kathleen (2002) Crisis Communication: A Case Book Approach (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum).Google Scholar
  16. Fiske, Susan T. and Taylor, Shelley E. (1991) Social Cognition (New York: McGraw-Hill).Google Scholar
  17. Gaffney, John (1991) The Language of Political Leadership in Contemporary Britain (New York: St Martin’s Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. George, Alexander L. (ed.) (1991) Avoiding War: Problems of Crisis Management (Boulder, CO: Westview Press).Google Scholar
  19. Greenstein, Fred I. (1969) Personality and Politics: Problems of Evidence, Inference and Conceptualization (Chicago: Markham).Google Scholar
  20. Hajer, Maarten A. (2009) Authoritative Governance: Policy Making in the Age of Mediatization (Oxford: Oxford University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hart, Roderick P. (1989) The Sound of Leadership: Presidential Communication in the Modern Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  22. Herek, Gregory M., Janis, Irving L. and Huth, Paul (1987) ‘Decision Making During International Crises: Is Quality of Process Related to Outcome?’ Journal of Conflict Resolution 31(2): 203–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hermann, Charles F. (ed.) (1972) International Crises: Insights from Behavioral Research (New York: Free Press).Google Scholar
  24. Hermann, Margaret G., Preston, Thomas, Korany, Baghat and Shaw, Timothy M. (2001) ‘Who Leads Matters: The Effects of Powerful Individuals’. International Studies Review 3(2): 83–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hood, Christopher C., Jennings, Will, Hogwood, Brian and Beeston, Craig (2009) ‘Fighting Fires in Testing Times: Exploring a Staged Response Hypothesis for Blame Management in Two Exam Fiasco Cases’. European Journal of Political Research 48(6): 695–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kiewe, Amos (1994) The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric (New York: Praeger).Google Scholar
  27. Kuypers, Jim A. (1997) Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-Cold War World (New York: Praeger).Google Scholar
  28. Masters, Adam and ’t Hart, Paul (2012) ‘Prime Ministerial Rhetoric and Recession Politics: Meaning Making in Economic Crisis Management’. Public Administration, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  29. Millar, Dan Pyle and Heath, Robert L. (2003) Responding to Crises: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum).Google Scholar
  30. Lebow, Richard N. (1981) Between Peace and War: The Nature of International Crisis (Boston: Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
  31. Linz, Juan J. and Stepan, Alfred (eds) (1978) The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
  32. Preston, Thomas (2000) The President and His Inner Circle (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  33. Rawnsley, Andrew (2010) The End of the Party: The Rise and Fall of New Labour (London: Penguin Books).Google Scholar
  34. Rosati, Jerel A. (1995) ‘A Cognitive Approach to the Study of Foreign Policy’. In Neack, Laura, Hey, Jeanne A. K. and Haney, Patrick J. (eds), Foreign Policy Analysis: Continuity and Change in Its Second Generation (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall), 49–70.Google Scholar
  35. Rosenthal, Uriel (1980) Political Order (The Hague: Sijthof).Google Scholar
  36. Rosenthal, Uriel, Charles, Michael T. and ’t Hart, Paul (eds) (1989) Coping With Crises: The Management of Disasters, Riots and Terrorism (Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas).Google Scholar
  37. Schafer, Mark and Walker, Stephen G. (2006) Beliefs and Leadership in World Politics: Methods and Applications of Operational Code Analysis (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schafer, Mark and Crichlow, Scott (2010) Groupthink vs. High Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  39. Steinbruner, John D. (1974) The Cybernetic Theory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  40. Stern, Eric (1997) ‘Crisis and Learning: A Conceptual Balance Sheet’. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5(2): 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stern, Eric K. and Sundelius, Bengt (1997) ‘Understanding Small Group Decisions in Foreign Policy: Process Diagnosis and Research Procedure’. In ’t Hart, Paul, Stern, Eric and Sundelius, Bengt (eds), Beyond Groupthink: Political Group Dynamics and Foreign Policy-Making (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press), 123–50.Google Scholar
  42. ’t Hart, Paul (1993) ‘Symbols, Rituals and Power: The Lost Dimension in Crisis’. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 1(1): 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. ’t Hart, Paul (1994) Groupthink in Government: A Study of Small Groups and Policy Failure (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
  44. Tindall, Karen and ’t Hart, Paul (eds) (2009) Framing the Global Economic Downturn: Crisis Rhetoric and the Politics of Recessions (Canberra: ANUE Press).Google Scholar
  45. Tulis, Jeffrey K. (1987) The Rhetorical Presidency (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  46. Uhr, John (2003) ‘Just Rhetoric? Exploring the Language of Leadership’. In Bishop, Patrick, Connors, Carmel and Sampford, Charles (eds), Management, Organisation and Ethics in the Public Sector (London: Routledge), 123–44.Google Scholar
  47. van Esch, Femke A. W. J. (2007) Mapping the Road to Maastricht: A Comparative Study of German and French Pivotal Decision Makers’ Preferences concerning the Establishment of a European Monetary Union during the Early 1970s and Late 1980s. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Radboud University Nijmegen, Faculty of Management Sciences.Google Scholar
  48. van Esch, Femke A. W. J. (2012) ‘Why Germany wanted EMU? The Role of Helmut Kohl’s Belief-System and the Fall of the Berlin Wall’. German Politics 21, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  49. Welch Larson, Deborah (1994) ‘The Role of Belief Systems and Schemas in Foreign Policy Decision-Making’. Political Psychology 15(1): 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wrightson, Margaret Tucker (1976) ‘The Documentary Coding Method’. In Axelrod, Robert M. (ed.), Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 291–332.Google Scholar
  51. Wood, B. Dan (2007) The Politics of Economic Leadership (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  52. Young, Michael D. (1996) ‘Cognitive Mapping Meets Semantic Networks’. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 40(3): 395–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Young, Michael D. and Schafer, Mark (1998) ‘Is there Method in Our Madness? Ways of Assessing Cognition in International Relations’. Mershon International Studies Review 42(1): 63–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Arjen Boin, Paul ’t Hart and Femke van Esch 2012

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations