Advertisement

The Origins of Marketing and Market Research: Information, Institutions, and Markets

  • Hartmut Berghoff
  • Philip Scranton
  • Uwe Spiekermann
Part of the Worlds of Consumption book series (WC)

Abstract

Only very naive economists believe that markets are perfect mechanisms of self-coordination and that their signals are clear enough for everyone to understand. Given the high rate of failed product launches and corporate bankruptcies, market signals cannot be all that unambiguous. To understand them is far from a trivial pursuit. Operating in markets means working with incomplete information and severe risk exposure. The historical development of markets over the last 200 years or so has done little to redress their imperfection. On the contrary, as industrialization and early globalization broke down regional and national barriers, markets became much harder to understand. They grew ever larger and more anonymous. Rapid technological and cultural change made them ever faster moving targets for those who sought to understand them.

Keywords

Market Research Consumer Credit Book Club Real Estate Agent Consumer Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Niklas Luhmann, “The Evolutionary Differentiation between Society and Interaction,” in The Micro-Macro Link, ed. Jeffrey C. Alexander et al. (Berkeley, CA, 1987), 112–31.Google Scholar
  2. See also Hartmut Berghoff, “Marketing im 20. Jahrhundert: Absatzinstrument—Managementphilosophie—universelle Sozialtechnik,” in Marketinggeschichte: Die Genese einer modernen Sozialtechnik, ed. Hartmut Berghoff (Frankfurt am Main, 2007), 11–58.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    See Franck Cochoy, “Another Discipline for the Market Economy: Marketing as a Performative Knowledge and Know-How for Capitalism,” in The Laws of the Markets, ed. Michel Callon (Oxford, UK, 1998), 194–221.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Mark Casson, “An Economic Theory of Marketing,” in The Rise and Fall of Mass Marketing, ed. Richard S. Tedlow and Geoffrey Jones (London, 1993), 183–204.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Robert Bartels, The History of Marketing Thought (Columbus, OH, 1988);Google Scholar
  6. Roland Bubik, Geschichte der Marketing-Theorie: Historische Einführung in die Marketing-Lehre (Frankfurt am Main, 1996);Google Scholar
  7. Franck Cochoy, Une histoire du marketing: discipliner l’économie de marché (Paris, 1999);Google Scholar
  8. Stanley C. Hollander, “The Marketing Concept: A Déjà Vu,” in Marketing: Management Technology as a Social Process, ed. George Fisk (New York, 1986), 3–29;Google Scholar
  9. Clemens Zimmermann, “Marktanalysen und Werbeforschung der frühen Bundesrepublik: Deutsche Traditionen und US-amerikanische Einflüsse, 1950–1965,” in Deutschland und die USA in der Internationalen Geschichte des 20 Jahrhunderts: Festschrift für Detlef Junker, ed. Manfred Berg and Philipp Gassert (Stuttgart, 2004), 473–91;Google Scholar
  10. and Eric H. Shaw and D. G. Brian Jones, “A History of Schools of Marketing Thought,” Marketing Theory 5 (2005): 239–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 5.
    Tedlow and Jones, eds., Rise and Fall; Geoffrey Jones and Nicholas J. Morgan, eds., Adding Value: Brands and Marketing in Food and Drink (London, 1994);Google Scholar
  12. and Roy Anthony Church, “New Perspectives on the History of Products, Firms, Marketing, and Consumers in Britain and the United States since the Mid-19th Century,” Economic History Review 52 (1999): 405–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 6.
    Donald F. Dixon, “Medieval Macromarketing Thought,” in Macromarketing, ed. George Fisk and Phillip White (Boulder, CO, 1980), 59–69.Google Scholar
  14. See also Neil McKendrick, “Josiah Wedgwood: An Eighteenth-Century Entrepreneur in Salesmanship and Marketing Techniques,” Economic History Review 12 (1959): 408–33;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. and David Higgins and Geoffrey Tweedale, “Asset or Liability? Trade Marks in the Sheffield Cutlery and Tool Trades,” Business History 37, no. 3 (1995): 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 7.
    Stanley C. Hollander, “Periodization in Marketing History,” Journal of Macromarketing 25 (2005): 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 8.
    Richard S. Tedlow, New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America (Oxford, UK, 1990).Google Scholar
  18. 9.
    Ronald A. Fullerton, “Was there a ‘Production Era’ in Marketing History? A Multinational Study,” in Marketing in the Long Run: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Historical Research in Marketing, ed. Stanley C. Hollander and Terence Nevett (East Lansing, MI, 1985), 388–400;Google Scholar
  19. and Stanley C. Hollander and Richard Germain, Was There a Pepsi Generation before Pepsi Discovered It? Youth-Based Segmentation in Marketing (Lincolnwood, IL, 1991).Google Scholar
  20. 10.
    Hartmut Berghoff, “Marketing Diversity: The Making of a Global Consumer Product: Hohner’s Harmonicas, 1857–1930,” Enterprise & Society 2 (2001): 338–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 11.
    The noun “marketing” in its present-day meaning was apparently used for the first time in 1897. See D. G. Brian Jones and Eric H. Shaw, “A History of Marketing Thought,” in Handbook of Marketing, ed. Barton A. Weitz and Robin Wensley (London, 2002), 50.Google Scholar
  22. 12.
    A good example was the Swiss chocolate producer Suchard. See Roman Rossfeld, Schweizer Schokolade: Industrielle Produktion und kulturelle Konstruktion eines nationalen Symbols 1860–1920 (Baden, 2007), especially 266–317.Google Scholar
  23. 13.
    For some important general works on the history of marketing practices, see Thomas A. B. Corley, “Consumer Marketing in Britain 1914–1960,” Business History 29 (1987): 65–83;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Susan Strasser, Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market (Washington, DC, 1989); Tedlow, New and Improved;Google Scholar
  25. Pamela Walker Laird, Advertising Progress: American Business and the Rise of Consumer Marketing (Baltimore, MD, 1998);Google Scholar
  26. Nancy F. Koehn, Brand New: How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers’ Trust from Wedgwood to Dell (Boston, MA, 2001);Google Scholar
  27. Roy Church and Andrew Godley, eds., The Emergence of Modern Marketing (London, 2003); and Berghoff, ed., Marketinggeschichte.Google Scholar
  28. Two detailed and insightful case studies: Robert Fitzgerald, Rowntree and the Marketing Revolution, 1862–1969 (Cambridge, UK, 1995);Google Scholar
  29. and Stephen L. Harp, Marketing Michelin: Advertising and Cultural Identity in Twentieth-Century France (Baltimore, MD, 2001).Google Scholar
  30. 15.
    William Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture (New York, 1993).Google Scholar
  31. 17.
    Jagdish N. Sheth and Barbara L. Gross, “Parallel Development of Marketing and Consumer Behavior: A Historical Perspective,” in Historical Perspectives in Marketing: Essays in Honor of Stanley C. Hollander, ed. Terence Nevett and Ronald A. Fullerton (Lexington, MA, 1988), 9–33;Google Scholar
  32. D. G. Brian Jones and David D. Monieson, “Early Development of the Philosophy of Marketing Thought,” Journal of Marketing 54 (1990): 102–13;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donald F. Dixon, “Some Late Nineteenth-Century Antecedents of Marketing Theory,” Journal of Macromarketing 19 (1999): 115–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 18.
    Melvin T. Copeland, “Relations of Consumers’ Buying Habits to Marketing Methods,” Harvard Business Review 1 (1923): 282–89.Google Scholar
  35. 20.
    J. W. Stoelhorst and Erik M. van Raami, “On Explaining Performance Differences: Marketing and the Managerial Theory of the Firm,” Journal of Business Research 57 (2004): 462–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 21.
    See, for example, Gerben Bakker, “Building Knowledge about the Consumer: The Emergence of Market Research in the Motion Picture Industry,” Business History 45 (2003): 101–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 22.
    Nepomuk Gasteiger, Der Konsument: Verbraucherleitbilder in Werbung, Konsumkritik und Verbraucherschutz 1945–1989 (Frankfurt am Main, 2010).Google Scholar
  38. 23.
    Ronald A. Fullerton, “‘Mr. MASS Motivations Himself’: Explaining Dr. Ernst Dichter,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour 6, no. 6 (2007): 369–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 24.
    Sheth and Gross, “Parallel Development,” 14–18; Ursula Hansen and Matthias Bode, Marketing & Konsum: Theorie und Praxis von der Industrialisierung bis ins 21. Jahrhundert (Munich, 1999), 102–61.Google Scholar
  40. 25.
    Benjamin Nelson, Punched Cards to Bar Codes: A 200 Year Journey (Dublin, 1997);Google Scholar
  41. Aaron L. Brody, “RFID Moves Ahead,” Food Technology 60, no. 9 (2006): 76–79.Google Scholar
  42. 26.
    On his life and work, see Dirk Schindelbeck, “Stilgedanken zur Macht: ‘Lerne wirken ohne zu handeln!’: Hans Domizlaff, eines Werbeberaters Geschichte,” in “Ins Gehirn der Masse kriechen!”: Werbung und Mentalitätsgeschichte, ed. Rainer Gries, Volker Ilgen, and Dirk Schindelbeck (Darmstadt, 1995), 45–73.Google Scholar
  43. 27.
    Tino Jacobs, Rauch und Macht: Das Unternehmen Reemtsma 1920 bis 1961 (Göttingen, 2008).Google Scholar
  44. 28.
    Hans Domizlaff, Die Gewinnung des öffentlichen Vertrauens: Ein Lehrbuch der Markentechnik (Hamburg, 1939), 129.Google Scholar
  45. 31.
    See Rainer Gries and Stefan Schwarzkopf, eds., Ernest Dichter: Doyen der Verführer (Vienna, 2007);Google Scholar
  46. Stefan Schwarzkopf and Rainer Gries, eds., Ernest Dichter and Motivation Research: New Perspectives on the Making of Post-War Consumer Culture (Houndmills, 2010).Google Scholar
  47. The next two paragraphs draw on Daniel Horowitz, “The Emigré as Celebrant of American Consumer Culture,” in Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century, ed. Susan Strasser, Charles McGovern, and Matthais Judt (Cambridge, UK, 1998), 149–66;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rainer Gries, “Die Geburt des Werbeexperten aus dem Geist der Psychologie: Der ‘Motivforscher’ Ernest W. Dichter als Experte der Moderne,” in Wirtschaftsgeschichte als Kulturgeschichte: Dimensionen eines Perspektivenwechsels, ed. Hartmut Berghoff and Jakob Vogel (Frankfurt am Main, 2004), 353–75; Hagley Museum and Library, collection guide to Ernest Dichter Papers, Accession 2407 (Wilmington, DE, 2009), 1–13, http://www.hagley.lib.de.us/library/collections/manuscripts/findingaids/dichter_finding_aid.pdf.Google Scholar
  49. 32.
    Vance Packard, The Hidden Persuaders (1957; Harmondsworth, 1962), 32–33, calculated Dichter’s honoraria and condemned the “deceitfulness” of his methods, like the secret eavesdropping on children and families. He also alluded to Dichter’s not having been born in the United States by pointing out that Dichter had originally spoken “broken English.”Google Scholar
  50. See also Daniel Horowitz, Vance Packard and American Social Criticism (Chapel Hill, NC, 1994);Google Scholar
  51. and Daniel Horowitz, The Anxieties of Affluence: Critiques of American Consumer Culture, 1939–1979 (Amherst, MA, 2004).Google Scholar
  52. 33.
    Ernest Dichter, The Strategy of Desire (New Brunswick, NJ, 2002), appendix II.Google Scholar
  53. 35.
    See, for example, Roy Church and Christine Clark, “Product Development of Branded, Packaged Household Goods in Britain, 1870–1914: Colman’s, Reckitt’s, and Lever Brothers,” Enterprise & Society 2 (2001): 503–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 37.
    On the history of salesmen, see Walter A. Friedman, Birth of a Salesman: The Transformation of Selling in America (Cambridge, MA, 2004);Google Scholar
  55. and Roman Rossfeld, “Suchard and the Emergence of Traveling Salesmen in Switzerland, 1860–1920,” Business History Review 82 (2009): 735–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. See also Andrew Popp, “Barriers to Innovation in Marketing in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Merchant-Manufacturer Relationships,” Business History 44 (2002): 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 38.
    Hartmut Berghoff, “From Small Press to Global Media Firm: The History of Bertelsmann in Outline, 1835–2010,” in 175 Years of Bertelsmann—The Legacy for Our Future, ed. Bertelsmann AG (Munich, 2010), 6–83.Google Scholar
  58. 39.
    See chapter 9. For a detailed analysis of developments in the United States, see Tracey Deutsch, Building a Housewife’s Paradise: Gender, Politics, and American Grocery Stores in the Twentieth Century (Chapel Hill, NC, 2010).Google Scholar
  59. 40.
    See chapter 8 and Kerstin Brückweh, ed., The Voice of the Citizen Consumer: A History of Market Research, Consumer Movements, and the Political Public Sphere (Oxford, UK, 2011).Google Scholar
  60. 43.
    Theodore M. Porter, Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life (Princeton, NJ, 1995);Google Scholar
  61. Nico Stehr, Moral Markets: How Knowledge and Affluence Change Consumers and Producers (Boulder, CO, 2008).Google Scholar
  62. 45.
    Niklas Luhmann, Trust and Power (Chichester, 1979);Google Scholar
  63. Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Stanford, CA, 1990).Google Scholar
  64. 46.
    Douglas C. North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (Cambridge, UK, 1990);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. James G. Carrier, ed., A Handbook of Economic Anthropology (Cheltenham, 2005).Google Scholar
  66. 48.
    On marketing in the automobile industry, see for example Roy Church, “The Marketing of Automobiles in Britain and the United States before 1939,” in Development of Mass Marketing: The Automobile and Retailing Industries, ed. Akio Okochi and Koichi Shimokawa (Tokyo, 1981), 59–92;Google Scholar
  67. and Sally Clarke, “Closing the Deal: GM’s Marketing Dilemma and its Franchised Dealers, 1921–41,” Business History 45 (2003): 60–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 49.
    Another example is the use of aluminum: Eric Schatzberg, “Symbolic Culture and Technological Change: The Cultural History of Aluminum as an Industrial Material,” Enterprise & Society 4, no. 2 (2003): 226–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 50.
    Mary O’Sullivan, Bonding and Sharing Industrial America: The U.S. Securities Markets, Industrial Dynamics and Corporate Development, 1885–1940 (Oxford, UK, 2012).Google Scholar
  70. 51.
    Louis Hyman, Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink (Princeton, NJ, 2011).Google Scholar
  71. 52.
    Lendol Calder, Financing the American Dream: A Cultural History of Consumer Credit (Princeton, NJ, 1999)Google Scholar
  72. and Jan Logemann, ed., The Development of Consumer Credit in Global Perspective: Business, Regulation, and Culture (New York, 2012). For Europe, see the special issue “Consommer à crédit en Europe au XXe siècle,” Entreprises et Histoire 59, no. 2 (2010): 5–125.Google Scholar
  73. 54.
    Hynek Jeábek, “Paul Lazarsfeld—The Founder of Modern Empirical Sociology: A Research Biography,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 13 (2001): 229–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 56.
    Andrew Godley, “Selling the Sewing Machine around the World: Singer’s International Marketing Strategies, 1850–1920,” Enterprise & Society 7 (2006): 266–341;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. José Luis Garcia Ruiz, “Cultural Resistance and the Gradual Emergence of Modern Marketing and Retailing Practices in Spain, 1950–1975,” Business History 49 (2007): 367–84;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Andrew Gordon, “Selling the American Way: The Singer Sales System in Japan, 1900–1938,” Business History Review 82 (2008): 671–99;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Geoffrey Jones, Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry (Oxford, UK, 2010).Google Scholar
  78. 57.
    See, for example, Kathy Peiss, “Making Up, Making Over: Cosmetics, Consumer Culture and Women’s Identity,” in The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective, ed. Victoria de Grazia with Ellen Furlough (Berkeley, CA, 1996), 311–36;Google Scholar
  79. Daniel Robinson, “Marketing Gum, Making Meanings: Wrigley in North America, 1890–1930,” Enterprise & Society 5 (2004): 4–44;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. and Ingo Köhler, “Overcoming Stagnation: Product Policy and Marketing in the German Automobile Industry of the 1970s,” Business History Review 84 (2010): 53–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. On the postwar consumer society in general: Avner Offer, The Challenge of Affluence: Self-Control and Well-Being in the United States and Britain Since 1950 (Oxford, UK, 2006).Google Scholar
  82. See also Hartmut Berghoff and Uwe Spiekermann, eds., Decoding Modern Consumer Societies (New York, 2012). 58.Google Scholar
  83. See Uwe Spiekermann, “Understanding Markets: Information, Institutions, and History,” Bulletin of the German Historical Institute 47 (Fall 2010): 93–101.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The German Historical Institute 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hartmut Berghoff
  • Philip Scranton
  • Uwe Spiekermann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations