Advertisement

From Managed Employees to Self-Managed Workers: The Transformations of Labour at Argentina’s Worker-Recuperated Enterprises

Chapter

Abstract

Argentina’s empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores (worker-recuperated enterprises, or ERTs) began to emerge in the early 1990s. They became consolidated in the late 1990s to early 2000s as more and more smallandmedium- sized enterprises (SMEs) began to fail or declare bankruptcy as a result of the country’s sharp neo-liberal turn. Traditional union tactics were unable to address workers’ needs, and an impotent state was on the defensive as social, economic and political crises rendered it incapable of responding to soaring immiseration and business failure. In this climate, some workers took matters into their own hands by occupying and reopening failing or failed firms, usually as workers’ cooperatives. By late 2009, almost 9400 workers were self-managing their working lives in over 200 ERTs across Argentina’s urban economy, in sectors as diverse as printing and publishing, metallurgy, foodstuffs, waste management, construction, textiles, shipbuilding, tourism and health provision (Ruggeri, 2010: 7).

Keywords

Social Economy Informal Learning Community Project Cooperative Model National Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almeyra, G. (2004). La Protesta Social En La Argentina, 1990–2004: Fábricas Recuperadas, Piquetes, Cacerolazos, Asambleas Populares. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Continente.Google Scholar
  2. Atzeni, M. and Ghigliani, P. (2007). Labour process and decision-making in factories under workers’ self-management: Empirical evidence from Argentina. Work, Employment and Society, 21(4), 653–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boron, A. and Thwaites-Rey, M. (2004). La expropiación en la Argentina: Genesis, desarollo, y los impactos estructurales. In J. Petras and H. Veltmeyer (Eds.), Las Privatizaciones Y La Desnacionalización De América Latin (pp. 113–182). Buenos Aires: Promoteo Libros.Google Scholar
  4. Braverman, H. (1974). Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  5. Clarke, G. and Antivero, J. (2009). La intervención sindical en las empresas recuperadas en la Argentina: Hacia la reconstrucción selectiva de un modelo de justicia social. In A. Ruggeri (Ed.), Las Empresas Recuperadas: Autogestión Obrera En Argentina Y América Latina (pp. 125–138). Buenos Aires: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  6. Clever, H. (2000). Reading Capital Politically. Oakland, CA: AK Press/AntiThesis.Google Scholar
  7. Colectivo Situaciones. (2002). Asambleas, cacerolas, y piquetes (Sobre las nuevas formas de protagonismo social). Buenos Aires: Colectivo Situaciones, Boradores de Investigación, No. 3. Retrieved 19 October 2005 from http://www.nodo50.org/colectivosituaciones/borradores_03.html.
  8. Damill, M. (2005). La economía y la pólitica económica: Del viejo al nuevo endeudamiento. In J. Sariano (Ed.), Nueva Historia Argentina, Vol. 10: Dictadura YDemocracia (1976–2001) (pp. 155–224). Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana.Google Scholar
  9. Dinerstein, A. (2002). The battle of Buenos Aires: Crisis, insurrection and the reinvention of politics in Argentina. Historical Materialism, 10(4), 5–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dyer-Witheford, N. (1999). Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High-Technology Capitalism. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  11. Escobedo, M. and Deux Marzi, M. V. (2007). Autogestión Obrera En La Argentina: Historia Y Presente. Rosario: UNR Editoria/Universidad Nacional de Rosario.Google Scholar
  12. Fajn, G. (2003). Fábricas Y Empresas Recuperadas: Protesta Social, Auotgestión, Y Rupturas En La Subjectividad. Buenos Aires: Centro Cultural de la Cooperación, Instituto Movilizador de Fondos Cooperativos.Google Scholar
  13. Fajn, G. and Rebón, J. (2005). El taller sin cronometro? Apuntes acerca de las empresas recuperadas. Herramienta, 28. Retrieved 23 January 2006 from http://www.herramienta.com.ar/print.php?sid=300. Google Scholar
  14. Fantasia, R. (1988). Cultures of Solidarity: Consciousness, Action, and Contemporary American Workers. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Foley, G. (1999). Learning in Social Action: A Contribution to Understanding Informal Education. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  16. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  17. Gambina, J. and Campione, D. (2002). Los Años De Menem: Cirugía Mayor. Buenos Aires: Centro Cultural de la Cooperación.Google Scholar
  18. Ghibaudi, J. (2006). Una aproximación comparativa a las empresas recuperadas argentinas y la autogeridas en Brasil [Electronic Version]. LabourAgain: International Institute of Social History. Retrieved January 6, 2009, from http://www.iisg.nl/labouragain/argentineantakeovers.php Google Scholar
  19. Hall, B. and Clover, D. (2005). Social movement learning. In L. M. English (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Adult Education (pp. 584–589). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. INAES (2007). Que es una cooperativa: Difinición, valores, principios, tipos. Instituto Nacional de Asociativismo y Economía Social,Ministerio Nacional de Desarollo Social. Retrieved 14 May 2007 from http://www.inaes.gov.ar/es/Entidades/cooperativas. Google Scholar
  21. Lebowitz, M. (2003). Beyond Capital: Marx’s Political Economy of the Working Class. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Levy Yeyati, E. and Valenzuela, D. (2007). La Resurrección: Historia De La Poscrisis Argentina. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana.Google Scholar
  23. Livingstone, D. and Roth, R. (2001). Workers’ knowledge: An untapped resource in the labour movement. New Approaches to Lifelong Learning Working Papers, 31. Retrieved 25 September 2010 from http://www.nall.ca/res/31workers.htm. Google Scholar
  24. MacPherson, I. (1995). Co-operative principles, ICA review 1995. International Co-operative Information Centre. Retrieved 14 June 2007 from http://www.uwcc.wisc.edu/icic/def-hist/gen-info/ Google Scholar
  25. Magnani, E. (2003). El Cambio Silencioso: Empresas Y Fábricas Recuperadas Por Los Trabajadores En La Argentina. Buenos Aires: Promoteo Libros.Google Scholar
  26. Marcuse, H. (1964). One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Marcuse, H. (1966). Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Martí, J. P., Bertullo, J., Soria, C., Barrios, D., Silveira, M., Camilletti, A. et al. (2004). Empresas recuperadas mediante cooperativas de trabajo: Viabilidad de una alternativa. UniRcoop, 2, 80–105. Retrieved 25 June 2007 from http://www.unircoop.org/unircoop/?q=node/35. Google Scholar
  29. Marx, K. (1987). Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  30. Mathews, R. (1999). Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stake-Holder Society: Alternatives to the Market and the State. Sydney: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  31. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception. New York: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ministerio de Economía y Producción. (2007). Concursos y Quiebras, Ley 25.589, Modificación de las Leyes 24.522 y 25.563. Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Economía y Producción, Gobierno de la República Argentina. Retrieved 7 July 2007 from http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/70000-74999/74331/norma.htm.
  33. Ministerio de Trabajo. (2008). Dinámico del empleo y rotación de empresas. Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Tabajo, Empleo, y Seguridad Social, Gobierno de la República Argentina. Retrieved 27 March 2010 from http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/left/estadisticas/descargas/oede/INF_dinamica200804.pdf.
  34. Ministerio de Trabajo. (2010). Situación ocupacional de la población urbana total. Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Tabajo, Empleo, y Seguridad Social, Gobierno de la República Argentina. Retrieved 9 March 2011 from http://www.trabajo.gob.ar/left/estadisticas/bel/belDisplayCuadro.asp?idCuadro=2&idSubseccion=1.
  35. Munck, R. M., Falcon, R. and Galitelli, B. (1987). Argentina from Anarchism to Peronism: Workers, Unions, and Politics, 1855–1985. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  36. Oakeshott, R. (1990). The Case for Workers’ Co-Ops (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olmedo, C. and Murray, M. J. (2002). The formalization of informal/precarious labor in contemporary Argentina. International Sociology, 17(3), 421–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palomino, H. (2003). The workers’ movement in occupied enterprises: A survey. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 28(55), 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Patroni, V. (2004). Disciplining labour, producing poverty: Neoliberal structural reforms and political conflict in Argentina. Research in Political Economy, 21, 91–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Petras, J. F. and Veltmeyer, H. (2002). Autogestión de trabajadores en una perspectiva histórica. In J. F. Petras, E. Carpintero and M. Hernández (Eds.), Produciendo Realidad: Las Empresas Comunitarias (pp. 53–81). Buenos Aires: Topía.Google Scholar
  41. Quarter, J. (1992). Canada’s Social Economy. Toronto: James Lorimer.Google Scholar
  42. Quarter, J. and Midha, H. (2001). Informal learning Processes in a worker cooperative. New Approaches to Lifelong Learning Working Papers, 37. Retreived 25 September 2010 from http://www.uwcc.wisc.edu/info/worker/nall37.pdf.
  43. Quarter, J., Mook, L. and Armstrong, A. (2009). Understanding the Social Economy: A Canadian Perspective. Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  44. Ranciere, J. (1989). The Nights of Labor: The Workers’ Dream in Nineteenth-Century France. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Rebón, J. (2004). Desobedeciendo Al Desempleo: La Experiencia De Las Empresas Recuperadas. Buenos Aires: Ediciones PICASO/La Rosa Blindada.Google Scholar
  46. Rebón, J. (2007). La Empresa De La Autonomía: Trabajadores Recuperando La Producción. Buenos Aires: Ediciones PICASO.Google Scholar
  47. Ruggeri, A. (Ed.) (2009). Las Empresas Recuperadas: Autogestión Obrera En Argentina Y América Latina. Buenos Aires: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  48. Ruggeri, A. (Ed.) (2010). Informe Del Tercer Relevamiento De Empresas Recuperadas Por Sus Trabajadores: Las Empresas Recuperadas En La Argentina, 2010. Buenos Aires: Programa Facultad Abierta, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  49. Ruggeri, A., Martínez, C. and Trinchero, H. (2005). Las empresas recuperadas en la Argentina: Informe del segundo relevamiento del programa. Buenos Aires: Facultad Abierta, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Programa de Transferencia Científico-Técnica con Empresas Recuperadas por sus Trabajadores (UBACyT de Urgencia Social F–701).Google Scholar
  50. Schugurensky, D. (2000). The forms of informal learning: Towards a conceptualization of the field. New Approaches to Lifelong Learning Working Papers, 19. Retrieved 14 December 2009 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/2733/2/19formsofinformal.pdf.
  51. Sitrin, M. (Ed.) (2006). Horizontalism: Voices of Popular Power in Argentina. Oakland, CA: AK Press.Google Scholar
  52. Smith, P., Chivers, D. and Goodfellow, G. (1988). Co-Operatives That Work: New Constitutions, Conversions, and Tax. Nottingham: Spokesman.Google Scholar
  53. Svampa, M. and Pereyra, S. (2004). Entre La Ruta Y El Barrio: Le Experiencia De Las Organizaciones Piqueteras. Buenos Aires: Editorial Biblos.Google Scholar
  54. Thompson, E. P. (1991). The Making of the EnglishWorking Class. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  55. Vieta, M. (2010). The social innovations of autogestión in Argentina’s workerrecuperated enterprises: Cooperatively organizing productive life in hard times. Labor Studies Journal, 35(3), 295–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vieta, M. and Ruggeri, A. (2009). The worker-recovered enterprises as worker cooperatives: The conjunctures, challenges, and innovations of selfmanagement in Argentina and Latin America. In J. J. McMurtry and D. Reed (Eds.), Co-Operatives in a Global Economy: The Challenges of Co-Operation Across Borders (pp. 178–225). Newcastle-Upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vosko, L. F. (2006). Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Williams, R. (2002). Culture is ordinary. In B. Highmore (Ed.), The Everyday Reader (pp. 91–100). London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Marcelo Vieta 2012

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations